Plutonium

Plutonium (Plutonium, Pu) is a radioactive element, serial number 94 in table D. I. Mendeleev. Get it in reactors (see nuclear Reactors) by irradiation with neutrons of uranium (see). He plays a crucial role in nuclear power and can serve as explosive nuclear bombs. Plutonium is highly toxic.

Plutonium (Plutonium, Pu) - transuranic radioactive chemical element, opened in 1940, when irradiated uranium heavy particles accelerated in the cyclotron, then. number 94. In uranium ores found in very small quantities (10-11-10-14). Known Pu isotopes with mass numbers from 232 to 246. Practically, it is important Pu239 T=2,44·104 years and the energy of alpha-particles 5,147; 5,134; 5,093 MeV. Pu239 has also soft x-ray (10-22 Kev) and gamma-radiation (approximately 380 Kev). Widely used in nuclear power, and is also used as explosives in atomic bombs.
When working with Pu239 you can enter the isotope in the body through the respiratory organs, at least through the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, with a further long fixing it in the lung, lymph nodes (sparingly soluble and insoluble compounds), the skeleton and the liver (soluble). For respiratory protection from ingress of plutonium use protective masks respirators. The distribution of plutonium in the body depends on the size of aerosols.
According to the recommendations of the International Committee on radiological protection (ICRP) maximum allowable content of Pu -239 in the body is 0,04 mccoury. Maximum permissible concentration of plutonium in the air of working premises 2·10-15 Curie/L.
At short-term ingestion of significant quantities (60 - 80 mccoury/kg) soluble compounds plutonium due to its selective accumulation in the bone structures in animals (rats) developed radiation sickness with acute period, the clinical picture of which are leading the symptoms of a blood system type of aplastic anemia. With the gradual accumulation of plutonium in the body in relatively small quantities, however, significantly exceeding the maximum permissible level, changes occur very slowly and mainly in critical organs. Thus, with the deposition of plutonium in the lungs in the remote periods may develop pneumosclerosis or swelling of the lungs; bones - osteogenic sarcoma, gipoplasticheskaya anemia or leukemia; in the liver hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer. While before the appearance of such a serious suffering significant changes on the part of other organs and systems, as a rule, cannot be detected.
The basic ways of excretion on, are the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. The half-life of Petrograd from the human body is approximately 200 years. To speed up the withdrawal P. was tried by a number of means, the most effective was complexing connection - trinationally salt diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Na3Ca-accident And (pentatsin)that it is expedient to use intravenous 0.25 g in the form of 5%solution (5 ml) 1-2 days, at the rate of 20-40 injection.
Given that the plutonium very slowly withdrawn from the body, particularly urgent prevention of defeat P., which consisted in strict observance of rules of work with radioactive substances, and systematic monitoring of the level of excretion P.