Pneumatos

Pneumatos is education in the tissues of the cysts or multiple blisters filled with air or gas; most often pneumatos appear in the lungs (see Emphysema, pulmonary Emphysema). Occasionally there are pneumatos the walls of the intestine, stomach, bladder, vagina. The etiology is not known. Pneumatos can develop as a result of penetration of air (during surgery or trauma), gas-forming microbes and other Clinical symptoms in many cases there are no; often pneumatos find only at autopsy.

Pneumatos (pneumatoses, from the Greek. pneuma, pneumatos - air) - cystic education in the internal organs in the form of blisters filled with air or gas. In addition, pneumatosis are also called diffuse tension some tissues from penetration and dissemination of air masses.
Cysts have views of transparent or semi-transparent thin-walled blisters whitish-grey, yellowish color. Their sizes range from barely noticeable formations to the size of a pigeon egg. The walls of bubbles consist of fibrous connective tissue framework; their internal surface can be covered alveolar epithelium (in the lung) or flat cells similar to vascular endothelium (in the digestive tract and bladder). Around cysts can be found lymphoid and plasma cells, rarely eosinophils and giant cells as foreign phone
The mechanism of formation of pneumatosis not always understandable. Believe that pneumatos due either to the penetration of air and gases in tissue due to alter the integrity, or the action of gas-forming microorganisms. On can result from mechanical injuries (wounds, open and closed fractures), atrophic and inflammatory changes, and as a result of violation of embryonic development (for example, in the lungs).
Pneumatos can be located in various organs, and find they often casually and operational interventions, and on the partition.
In the digestive system P. seen in the walls of the intestines, stomach and into the peritoneum. P. ulcer (pneumatosis cystoides intestini) appears as thick, and in the small intestines. Most often affected the ileum, and cysts are mainly subserous. In the stomach of pneumatos rarely arise.
P. urogenital system are rare; for women it can also take place at the end of pregnancy, during delivery; if the fetus materialen may develop P. bladder (pneumatosis vesicae urinariae) in the form of so-called emphysematous of urocystitis, where as in the inflamed mucosa, and in the deeper layers of the bladder wall detect gas bubbles in size from microscopic size to pea.
A peculiar form of pneumatosis is emphysematous colpitis (colpitis emphysematosa), developing in pregnant women in the mucous membrane of the vagina in the form of multiple bubbles the size of a pinhead.
In the brain P. (pneumocephalia) are rare. They are consequences of closed or open trauma of cranial bones. Air can penetrate the membranes of the brain - the so-called outer pneumocephalus (pneumocephalia ехtracerebralis) - or in the ventricles - internal pneumocephalus (pneumocephalia intracerebralis).
In the respiratory system, pneumatos found in the larynx (see Laryngocele) and the lungs (See Emphysema).
The group Isthmus is also subcutaneous emphysema (see Emphysema).