The clinical picture. Different types of pneumoconiosis different clinical manifestations. However, all dust fibrosis lung share common characteristics that allow you to combine them into one group of occupational diseases. Depending on the severity of the fibrotic process, there are three stages of the disease. Initially marked pains in the chest, dry cough, shortness of breath, appearing only at considerable physical strain. When more pronounced dust fibrosis lungs, shortness of breath occurs already in mild physical activity, increased cough, appears sputum, signs of respiratory failure.
Further to pulmonary insufficiency can join the symptoms of heart failure is increased heart rate, increase in the size of the heart, liver, swelling in the legs. In addition to the changes of the organs of respiration and circulation, often there are hypertrophic or atrophic changes of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, disturbed secretory and motor function of the stomach and pancreas, are inhibited oxidation processes in the body, there are a violation of protein metabolism, often accelerates ROHE. Complications that often appear pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis; and there is a severe disease - silicotuberculosis. The longer and harder flows pneumoconiosis, the more complicated TB. In some cases develop chronic bronchitis with asthmatic symptoms, bronchiectasis.
Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis is based on the clinical data and the results of x-ray studies with mandatory consideration of the professional history.
The differential diagnosis should be carried out with diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, often occurring in persons over the age of 45-50 years, disseminated tuberculosis and other
Fibrotic changes that occur in the lungs under the influence of various dust, are irreversible. People with a diagnosis of pneumoconiosis should be under constant medical supervision. It should first of all pay attention to changes in the health status of each patient with pneumoconiosis. Prescribe bed rest. Used antibiotics and sulfa drugs at occurrence of pneumonia, cardiovascular funds in the development of heart failure. In case of complications, hospitalization is indicated.
Treatment of pneumoconiosis is a difficult task and yet limited symptomatic drugs. The major activities should be aimed at preventing the progression of the disease and prevention of complications. Recommended for the complex therapy in which the majority of therapeutic measures aimed at increasing the body's resistance: long stay in the fresh air, good nutrition with additional introduction in a diet daily 150 - 200 g of cheese, vitamins (vitamin C 400-500 mg, citrine 200 mg before meals for 20-30 days, nicotinic acid). In recent years, when pneumoconiosis with prophylactic and therapeutic purpose recommend the use of alkaline inhalation.
The important role of medical physical culture, which prevents the reduced function of the respiratory apparatus. This increases vital capacity lungs, increases the blood saturation with oxygen, strengthens the heart muscle. With symptoms of bronchitis and bronchospasm - inhalation bronhorasshirath funds (ephedrine, diphenhydramine, aminophylline). In case of respiratory failure - oxygen therapy; more effectively stay patient in an oxygen tent for 30-45 minutes at the content of 50-60% of oxygen in the gas mixture. In the case of silicotuberculosis spend extended treatment in the TB dispensary.
Recommended medical treatment at local climatic resorts; in cool season on the southern coast of Crimea, Northern Caucasus, in the Borovoye resort and other
Prevention of pneumoconiosis should be aimed primarily at combating dust content of the air at the workplace. Of great importance prior to coming to work and periodic medical examinations for workers in the dusty.
To prevent further progression of fibrosis of the lungs all patients with silicosis, asbestosis, silicotuberculosis should translate to a job that does not involve exposure to dust. These patients is contraindicated work in conditions of adverse microclimate, irritating gases. Physical activity are also undesirable. Categorically to prohibit Smoking.
Persons with initial forms of the so-called benign, ie, slowly progressive, types of pneumoconiosis, such as sideras, can be left at their work with the compulsory medical supervision with translation into less dusty area.