Pneumoconiosis is a group of diseases of the lungs, resulting from a prolonged inhalation of dust production. The group of pneumoconiosis includes a large number of different types of dust fibrosis lung observed for workers of mining, coal, machine building and other industries.
The terms of development of pathological processes are different and are determined not only by the amount of dust in the air, the dust and the individual sensitivity of the organism, but also for other reasons. In the basis of pathological anatomy of pneumoconiosis is the development of fibrotic lung changes.
There are two main morphological forms of pneumoconiosis: nodular, which is characterized by the development in the lung tissue of a large number silikatnih knots, consisting of concentrically located galinadiamond beams connective tissue; diffuse sclerosis form, which is manifested by a sharp thickening and sclerosis of the alveolar walls, the development of emphysema. Various kinds of dust can cause different nature of the course and severity of changes in the lungs. Depending on the composition of dust can develop different kinds of pneumoconiosis different clinical manifestations and severity of disease and complications.
More common silicosis is the hardest and most common of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of industrial dust, containing a large number of free silicon dioxide. Silicosis is observed in workers of ore mining, coal, machine-building, metallurgy, faience and other industries. Silicosis is often complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary heart.
Among pneumoconiosis notice a large group of silikatov, caused by inhalation of dust silicates, i.e. substances containing silicon dioxide is not in free and bound with other elements (aluminum, magnesium, iron). Silicates are widely distributed in nature and are used in many industries. The most difficult silicates - asbestosisarising from the inhalation of asbestos dust - silicate-containing silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, sometimes the calcium oxide and aluminum. Asbestos dust is generated during the extraction of asbestos, its sorting and processing. Asbestosis is characterized by pronounced emphysema, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis. Shortness of breath, coughing and chest pain appear much earlier than when silicosis; complication of pulmonary TB is less common.
Talks develops as a result of exposure to dust talc, widely used in rubber, textile, perfume industry, paper production. The disease occurs slowly, is more benign than asbestosis.
From pneumoconiosis due to exposure to metallic dust, the most important are aluminas, Sederot, manganates. Inhalation of large quantities of dust aluminum metal and its compounds and alloys can develop aluminas. When aluminate occurs mainly beausaquosy diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, but if the dust of silicon dioxide mixed forms possible aluminum pneumoconiosis - intersticialna-knot. Aluminas can develop relatively quickly - within 6-12 months.- and often proceed with symptoms of lung and heart failure. The disease often accompanied by loss of appetite, pain in the abdomen.
Manganates (melanoconion) may develop due to inhalation of dust manganese, from the mining of manganese ores or grinding them. The disease is relatively benign. Manganates may be accompanied by diseases of the upper respiratory tract, as well as common chronic manganese intoxication, which is characterized by the defeat of the Central nervous system.
Sideros develops in welders, working foundry, foremen of metal products by inhalation of dust containing iron. The disease occurs when large industrial experience and is characterized by pronounced changes on x-ray and minor clinical manifestations. When exposed to dust mixtures of quartz with iron oxide may develop siderosis, which is typical for miners of iron ore mines.
Antracot found in miners of the coal mines in contact with coal dust. The disease is more benign than silicosis. Inhalation of coal dust significant admixture of quartz develops antracosilicosis, clinical course which also relatively benign.
A peculiar type of pneumoconiosis is bissinesarising from prolonged exposure through inhalation cotton dust, and bagassesarising in workers involved in the processing of sugar cane. For these types of pneumoconiosis is characterized by the presence of bronchitis and emphysema at a very low development of fibrous tissue in the lungs. Sometimes bronchitis are accompanied by acute episodes of bronchospasm, proceeding with clinical symptoms of asthma (see).
Some authors to pneumoconiosis also include berillios, paced by inhalation of dust metal beryllium is used in many industries. Berillios can be acute (like pneumonia) or chronically with the defeat of the upper respiratory tract and development in light of the specific Wegener. Often berillios has severe course with clear indications bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia and severe lung and heart failure.

Pneumoconiosis (pneumonoconiosis, from the Greek. pneumon is easy and konia - dust) - a group of lung diseases that result from a systematic breathing dust.