Pnevmatikos

Pnevmatikos - lung disease caused by various species of fungi (Actinomyces, Candida, Blastomyces, Aspergillus and others). The names of pnevmomaketov originate from the name of the agent that caused the disease (such as Candida - candidiasis, Actinomyces - actinomycosis, and so on). Pnevmatikos divided into exogenous arising from the introduction into the body of fungi from the external environment, and endogenous caused by fungi-saprophytesthat live in the body and, under certain conditions, become pathogenic. Pnevmatikos developed in healthy to this man, called the primary. Secondary pnevmatikos occur in patients with serious diseases that reduce the body's defenses (tuberculosis, diabetes and other). With long-term use of massive doses of antibiotics is more often endogenous pnevmatikos; antibiotics disturb the physiological balance of microflora and sometimes can lead to the development of pronounced dysbacteriosis. When pnevmatikos affects the bronchi and lungs. The lungs are formed pneumonic tricks, dense, or with the softening in the centre, or even with the cavity of disintegration containing yeast cells.
The clinical picture is polymorphism and has similarities with pneumonia, abscess, tuberculosis, malignant neoplasms of the lung.
Candidiasis (see) lung most common pnevmatikos; prior antibiotic use was rare.
The actinomycetes (see) lung is one of the most severe pnevmomaketov. The main route of infection endogenous - from the mouth. Characterized by excruciating pain in the chest (painful even touch shirts), hacking cough with poor, sometimes bloody sputum. In advanced cases can develop fistulas chest wall.
Pulmonary aspergillosis refers to professional illness; occurs in the milling industry, of caselwiki wool, hemp, etc., inhaling dustcontaining spores of the fungus. Perhaps the development of the disease as a complication in antibacterial therapy (secondary aspergillosis.
Penicillin, monorails lung arise as a secondary pnevmatikos; are rare.
Cryptococcosis, pulmonary coccidioidomycosis also belong to the rare pneumolysin. Perhaps, as an exogenous or endogenous infection.
Blastomycosis (see) lung occurs mainly in countries with a hot climate.
The pulmonary histoplasmosis is a disease common in Africa, USA.
Diagnosis of pnevmomaketov difficult due to the diversity of clinical forms. Crucial laboratory studies (reaction of binding complement, serological reactions), intradermal tests, culture fungus.
Treatment of pnevmomaketov should be carried out comprehensively, with the use of antifungal agents (nystatin, levorin and others). Lumpy light, particularly complicated purulent infection, you may need surgical treatment.
The forecast. In the case of primary pnevmatikos the disease often ends recovery. In secondary pnevmatikos process can continue for many years with the formation of cavities, bronchiectasis. The death comes from the underlying disease (tuberculosis, diabetes, etc), contributing to the development of secondary pneumonology, or, rarely, pulmonary hemorrhage. Possible outcome in fungal sepsis in patients treated with massive doses of antibiotics.

Pnevmatikos (from the Greek. pneumon is easy and mykes - fungus) is a lung disease caused by fungi.
Etiology and classification. Pathogens on can be of different kinds and species radiant fungus class actinomycetes (Actinomyces Israeli, Nocardia, and others), yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and others), kind Geotrichum, kind of Blastomyces, mold fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and others), yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, etc.
P. divided into exogenous arising from the introduction into the body of fungi from the external environment, and endogenous caused by fungi - saprophytes, common dwellers of the body, which under certain conditions begin to multiply and become pathogenic properties. Some of P. may have as exogenous, and endogennoi origin.
Exogenous pnevmatikos.
1. Histoplasmosis. 2. Coccidioidomycosis. 3. North American blastomycosis. 4. South American blastomycosis. 5. Sporotrichosis.
Endogenous pnevmatikos. 1. Candidiasis. 2. Geotrygon.
Exogenous and endogenous pnevmatikos. 1. Cryptococcosis.
2. Aspergillosis. 3. The too. 4. Monorails. 5. The actinomycetes.
From a clinical point of view, there are primary and secondary P., developing on the ground already existing disease.

Pathogenesis. In the development of pnevmatikos are important diseases, decrease the body resistance (diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tracts, hypovitaminosis). Last time the great importance attached to the antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum, violating in the long admission physiological balance of microflora in consequence of the death sensitive to them microorganisms. In addition, they contribute to the development of hypovitaminosis.
Diagnosis of pnevmomaketov often presents great difficulties arising from the diversity of the clinical picture and its similarity with a number of other diseases of the respiratory system (tuberculosis, chronic pneumonia, lung tumor and others). Therefore, in each case pulmonary lesions of unknown etiology should, along with the usual clinical and radiological examination of the patient to hold special mycological research. Laboratory diagnosis of P. includes: microscopic examination of sputum (Fig. 1-3) or bronchus secret, taken during bronchoscopy, the presence of fungus; the culture of pathogens; serological reactions; intradermal reaction fungal antigens. Diagnosis of P. most reliably can be provided only by repeated application of these kinds of studies.

Fig. 1. The threads of the fungus Mucor in the sputum (native preparation).
Fig. 2. The threads of the fungus Aspergillus in the sputum.
Fig. 3. Threads fungus Soor in the sputum.

Treatment of pnevmomaketov should be comprehensive, taking into account the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. The basic method of treatment of patients actinomycosis - penicillinate (800 000 IU or more a day, the course of treatment up to 40 000-50 000 000 000 IU) or treatment with streptomycin (up to 80 000 000 IU per course of treatment). You can combine these drugs. Also used drugs hydrazide-isonicotinic acid, ftivazide (but 0.5 g 2-3 times a day). When pulmonary candidiasis specific tool is nystatin (mycostatin), which is administered in a dose of 500 000 UNITS 4-6 times a day for 10-15 days; usually necessary to repeat courses. Other antibiotics to cancel. If necessary, replace them sulfonamides. When aspergillosis (and other fungi of pnevmomaketov) apply iodine therapy intravenous infusion of 10% sodium Iodide, it is recommended nystatin. When isolated cavernous forms of pulmonary aspergillosis shows the segmental resection of the lung. When cryptococcosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and pulmonary histoplasmosis successfully used antibiotic amphotericin b (Amphotericin B). Of great importance in the treatment of P. has vitamin therapy, especially vitamins b complex, and blood transfusion (200 ml 1 time in 5-7 days, only 6-8 transfusions and injections of gamma globulin.