Pneumonia

Pneumonia (pneumonia) is different in etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory processes in the alveoli, the bronchioles, interstitial connective tissue, often involved in the inflammatory process and the vessels of the lung.
Pneumonia occurs as a separate disease or difficult for other diseases.
There are pneumonia, acute and chronic. There are some clinical-morphological variants of acute pneumonia, but the main consider focal and lobar pneumonia. This division gives an idea of the character of anatomic changes, the process prevalence and severity of disease. When focal and lobar pneumonia localized inflammation in the lung tissue and bronchi (parenchymal pneumonia). There is also interstitial pneumonia, which affected mostly the connective tissue of the lung.
Etiology and pathogenesis. Pneumonia refers to infectious diseases, because it occurs in the importance belongs bacterial microflora (pneumococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, the Streptococcus), viruses (influenza, adenovirus), Mycoplasma pneumonia, and other Penetration of pathogens into the lungs is mainly bronchial way. It is also possible hematogenous and lymphogenous route of infection. The oral cavity and nasopharynx are the main sources entering the trachea and bronchi microbes. Along with infectious agents for the occurrence of the disease are also important predisposing to the disease factors that affect the organism reactivity and lower its resistance.
These factors include some meteorological effects on the body, primarily hypothermia in combination with high humidity, breach of normal conditions of work and life, physical and mental fatigue, a previous lung diseases, chronic intoxication, harmful habits (Smoking, alcohol), inadequate nutrition.
Various forms of pneumonia associated with the peculiarities of the response of the body against pathogens. Lobar pneumonia usually occurs with increased reactivity, focal - at normal or reduced reactivity of organism.
Pathological anatomy. When pneumonia in the affected inflammation of the lung area at the beginning of the disease occurs intensive blood supply. The alveoli are filled inflammatory exudates containing fibrincut out of the cell epithelium, red and white blood cells, due to what the air from the inflamed part of the lung is displaced. Easy loses the air becomes thick and heavy. Inflammatory changes are observed not only in the alveoli, but in the smallest bronchi. The epithelium lining the bronchi, is loosened, the bronchi clearance is filled with effusion. Crowded inflammatory content alveoli press on capillaries, which is why they are poorly filled with blood up to a full stop blood flow in some areas of inflamed tissue; then comes the gradual softening of inflammatory exudates. Great importance is white blood cells, which contain enzymesthat dissolve curled up in the alveoli effusion. The contents of the alveoli after its dissolution partly absorbed and partly removed by coughing.
Anatomical changes do not always occur in strictly certain sequence. When lobar pneumonia distinguish several stages (hyperemia, red and gray obucheniya stage and permissions). Morphological picture at the focal pneumonia is quite motley: along with areas permission found pockets of intense hyperemia, etc. Lymph nodes located near the sites of inflammation, increase in size and remain swollen for some time after the elimination of the inflammatory process.
As the recovery comes the restoration of normal anatomic structures of the lung, and the alveoli again begin to perform the function of gas exchange.

Pneumonia (pneumonia; from the Greek. pneumon - light - is an inflammation of the lung. Titled P. mean different etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory processes localized in the bronchioles, the alveolar tissue, interstitial connective tissue, often inflammatory process spreads on the vascular system of the lungs. Soviet clinicians distinguish the character of the clinical course and originality of morphological changes of acute and chronic P.

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