Pneumosclerosis - proliferation of connective tissue in the lungs, resulting in violation of their functions.
Pneumosclerosis - disease polietiologic. There are cardiogenic pneumosclerosis, developing due to prolonged stagnation in the heart diseases and various myocardial lesions. Development of cardiogenic pneumosclerosis contribute frequent in these patients pneumonia and heart attacks the lungs.
Cardiogenic pneumosclerosis, causing the disturbance of the function of external respiration, exacerbates the effects of heart failure. Pneumosclerosis can be caused by pneumoconiosis (see); metapneumoviruses pneumosclerosis develops due to chronic and acute prolonged pneumonia. Pneumosclerosis that occur after acute pneumonia, for a certain period of time may not be clinically manifest and is only revealed by x-ray. On the background of pneumosclerosis often inflammatory processes, which in the case of protracted period, as well as the recurrence of the disease may become chronic pneumonia. Pneumosclerosis also develops due to tuberculosis - see Tuberculosis.
Prevalence defeat distinguish focal pneumosclerosis (segmental, limited syndrome average share, chronic lung abscess), multifocal, diffuse and mixed.
The degree of functional disorders - pneumosclerosis, proceeding without the Express breathing, pneumosclerosis with impaired patency of the bronchi, pneumosclerosis, causing breathing problems, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease.
The nature of the flow are not progressing pneumosclerosis, progressive (fast, slow). Not progressing pneumosclerosis more likely to occur in non-smokers, and also for people, not exposed to the cold. In some cases, pneumosclerosis, beginning after measles or pertussis pneumonia, childhood, manifested in adults clinical symptoms (often after Smoking) and, slowly progressing, leads to multiple bronchiectasis, sometimes to abscesses.
The clinical picture. Symptoms of pneumosclerosis often the same as when the disease that caused it. The main symptoms are cough with poor mucous or mucopurulent sputum, sometimes chest pain, low-grade fever.
With a focal pneumosclerosis over a limited area of light listens moist rales, often in combination with dry; the breath is not changed.
Diffuse pneumosclerosis most often runs as chronic bronchitis. Early joins shortness of breath, first on exertion and later at rest.
X-ray diagnostics. With a focal pneumosclerosis in limited areas of the lung tissue visible coarse or ring-shaped shadow (sometimes with the level of liquid in them), which is a bronchiectasis.
In the initial phases of development of diffuse pneumosclerosis marked deformation and strengthening of pulmonary figure, with the progression of the process visible rough tyazhistye shadows coming from the root of the lung, or small-and srednebelaya grid. As a result of uneven wrinkling of separate areas of the lung tissue of the lung picture becomes either condensed or sparse. Dramatically change the shade of the roots of the lungs. In severe cases there is a deformity of the chest.
Treatment and prevention. In the prevention of pneumosclerosis leading role belongs to measures aimed at aftercare of pneumonia. For patients who have had pneumonia, to watch during the year.
If there sputum assigned expectorants (potassium iodide) and bronchodilators. During exacerbations appoint chloramphenicol, tetracycline with nystatin or oletetrin in combination with sulfa drugs in standard dosage.
In the diffuse pneumosclerosis great importance to the timely diagnosis and treatment of heart failure. Favorable results of the treatment of the climatic health resort (southern coast of Crimea, Odessa, Riga and other).
Physical therapy (physiotherapy) when pneumosclerosis used to improve the function of external respiration, consolidation and tempering of the organism. On the stage of compensation of pneumosclerosis make special breathing exercises. They should be simple, be done without stress, not to slow breathing, slow and middle tempo, rhythm, and gradually increase the load. Recommended amount of athletic exercises in the air: middle tourism, skiing, skating and skiing, boating , etc. In severe emphysema and pulmonary-cardiac insufficiency medical gymnastics is lying down, sitting, standing, individually or with a small group, the duration of sessions 15 - 25 minutes Choice original position, the loads are determined by the degree of lung-heart failure. Special breathing exercises to train the expiratory phase, which is achieved by use of a long exhale through the closed tube lips, exhaling with pronouncing the sibilant consonants, increased exhalation by pushing the lower part of the chest hands of a practitioner or the patient in the second half of exhalation. When combined movements breathing exhalation should correspond to the torso, lowering the shoulder girdle and arms, hand, bringing hip to the stomach, exhalation should be made at the moment of highest tension. Contraindicated therapeutic exercise in General condition, the temperature is higher than 37.5°, repeated coughing up blood.

Pneumosclerosis (pneumosclerosis; from the Greek. pneumon is easy and sklerosis - hardening) - development of scar connective tissue of the lungs, leading to a violation of their functions. This term brings together a number of diverse etiology and pathogenesis of States, leading to abnormal development of the connective tissue in the lungs.
In most cases, is not sufficiently clear boundaries between pneumosclerosis, chronic pneumonia and chronic bronchitis, which is reflected in the item. Some authors prefer the term "chronic bronchitis", others - "chronic nonspecific pneumonia".
P. should not be seen as a stable state, and as an evolving process that continuously progressing, it gives a more or less long-term remission.
The infection that caused the inflammatory process, finds in modified Andrey process lung favorable conditions for its existence. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy is limited by the fact that antibacterial agents not penetrate in a little vascularization, scar altered areas of the lung tissue and bronchi.
When initially noncommunicable P. (pneumoconiosis, toxic, radiation P.) infection is most often secondary supporting P. and calling its progression.
Classification of pneumosclerosis Dana A. N. The rubel in three aspects : (a) the volume of defeat - solid (share), alopecia, scattered (fibrous peribronchial); b) on etiological and pathogenetic features - metapneumoviruses, metatorbernite, pneumoconiosis, cardiogenny; C) by clinical - compensated, subcompensated, asthma. This classification was exposed in the following a number of changes and additions.
Over the last decade, it is observed the increase in the number of patients P., due to several circumstances: 1) extension of the term of life and, therefore, the timing of the effects of various harmful agents;
2) increasing pollution of cities and industrial enterprises (especially abroad) and motor transport;
3) dramatically reduced mortality from pneumonia treatment with antibiotics reduces the acute period, but significantly tighten the final resolution of inflammation); 4) the effective treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (tubes. the infection is defeated, but sclerosis remains); 5) wars with a large number of harmful effects in a weakened resistance of the organism; 6) next flu pandemics; 7) increase of the degree of sensitization of the population because of the excessive widespread use of antibiotics and other medicines, which have hapenini properties.