Pneumoconiosis

Classification. In the USSR adopted the classification of pneumoconiosis based on radiographic signs, based on the data of the clinical course, possible complications and state disability. P. are professional diseases, however, documented cases of diseases by pneumoconiosis and among the population living near businesses that emit settlements significant amounts of dust. Depending on the composition of the dust there are various types P. differing in duration, severity of illness, complications. In addition to the composition of inhaled dust on the severity of pneumoconiosis is significantly influenced by the amount of dust in the air of working places, the duration of work in conditions of dust and individual peculiarities of the organism working. The severity of the disease pastels can be aggravated by the simultaneous effect of toxic gases, adverse weather conditions, heavy physical labor, associated with prolonged increase respirable dust-Laden air, etc.
Silicosis (halichos, licos) is the most severe of pneumoconiosis - occurs as a result of exposure to dust silicon dioxide (silica). In nature and in industry silica occurs in the form of the mineral quartz, but when heating, firing and burning of quartz and other modifications SiO2 can move in different crystal modifications, the dust (with the same quantity) may determine the occurrence of silicosis even faster and more severe than quartz. Amorphous silica is found in nature in the form of hard-shelled lands, Tripoli and others and manufactured in industry under the name of white soot, aerogel, and others, can also cause silicosis, but in this case, the disease occurs without significant fibrosis. The severity of silicosis rises dramatically in case of combination with tuberculosis (silicotuberculosis), which is often the cause fatal diseases. Essential individual peculiarities of the organism. Silicosis is often in workers of ore-mining and machine-building industry, but it can occur in any of the shops, where they are processed or used materials containing SiO2 and form in the production process significant amounts of dust.
A large group of pneumoconiosis the joint name of silicates. They arise from dust, consisting of silicate and various compounds, which SiO2 is located in the complex. The most difficult silicates - asbestosis arising from the inhalation of asbestos dust - silicate, consisting mainly of MgO, SiO2. When asbestosis shortness of breath, coughing and chest pain occur much earlier than when silicosis, but a complication TB happens rarely. Asbestosis can ill persons employed in the extraction of asbestos and the manufacture of asbestos yarn, fabric, etc. etc.
Talks - silicates due to exposure to talc dust - magnesium silicate. Talks can arise for working rubber, perfumery, medical and other industries that use talc powders.
To silicatos include certain types of pneumoconiosis arising from exposure to cement dust, if it contains many of silicates. But in its composition cements can vary dramatically the amount of crystalline modifications SiO2 (quartz and others) and amorphous its compounds (Tripoli, moulding boxes), the presence of other contaminants. This makes the possibility of emergence from inhalation of cement dust various severity of pneumoconiosis - from the typical silicosis to mild forms of silicates.
From P. due to the influence of metal or containing metal dust, the most studied aluminas, sideras and manganates (melanoconion). Aluminas arise from inhalation of large quantities of dust pure aluminum metal, does not contain SiO2, dust aluminium oxide and other compounds and alloys. Luminosa also referred to as PP of bauxite dust and various clays, consisting mainly of Al2O3, but also contains impurities SiO2. Aluminas is developing mainly bezuslovnogo fibrosis, but in the presence of dust SiO2 may arise mixed forms - intersticialna-knot. Aluminas can develop quickly and be quite severe, sometimes with symptoms of pulmonary-cardiac insufficiency, cyanosis.
Manganates (melanoconion)caused by inhalation of dust on manganese mines and dust generated during grinding of manganese ores, largely associated with the content in it SiO2. At small dust occurs mainly diffuse interstitial fibrosis, at high (over 10%) - knot. Pneumoconiosis can be combined with the disease of the upper respiratory tract and pneumonia (which is typical for action dust manganese), and also with the General intoxication of an organism.
Sideros occurs from breathing dust iron and mainly its oxides. Dust iron and its compounds is considered biologically inactive, and nodular blackout on x-rays of the lungs explain lower permeability dust piling of iron for x-rays. In the dust ore mines usually found significant amounts of quartz, and when it inhalation occurs siderosis, which often flows more easily than silicosis. Similar to Sideroom buritos arising from the inhalation of dust barite, when there is no pronounced fibrosis, during benign, the severity increases as the presence of dust impurities quartz; in addition, the dust of barite impervious to any x-rays. Some authors to the number of pneumoconiosis include berillios arising from dust inhalation of beryllium. The disease may be acute (pneumonia) or chronic (with the development of lung specific Wegener). In the latter case in the lungs revealed typical for berillios conchoidal Taurus. The disease is both acute and chronic, often wears heavy character.


As a result of exposure to coal dust develops antracot. Miners of the coal mines pneumoconiosis can proceed by type of silicosis, anthracosilicosis and intrakota - depending on the composition of the dust. The majority of Soviet authors consider that P. Collier is mainly antracosilicosis.
A peculiar type of Peterhof is bissines arising from the inhalation of cotton dust. For this kind P. characterized by the presence of bronchitis and them in very poor connective tissue in the lungs, which gives rise to some authors do not consider this disease on In the composition of cotton dust (for example, cotton-ginning factories in the preparatory departments of textile factories) may sometimes contain significant amounts of impurities mineral particles, particularly quartz. In this case, there pneumoconiosis mixed origin with more severe fibrosis of the lungs. Bissines may occur and workers lesoobrabotki plants. The similarity byssinosis has a different view P. arising from organic dust - bagasses. Bagasse - waste of sugar cane (after extracting sugar), reaching for the manufacture of insulation building materials, cardboard, etc. In the dust, like cotton, may contain a considerable admixture of microbes and fungi.
There are other P. arising from the dust of the most diverse composition (ores, slag, slates, chemical raw materials, construction materials, abrasives, glass and shlakovoza, dust vegetable and animal origin, and others).
In most cases, the composition of dust is complex, and often its impact is complicated by the simultaneous action of vapors and gases that are sometimes change their part in the interaction, while the influence of oxygen of air, high temperatures, moisture, etc. In particular, such pneumoconiosis as hyopneumoniae and tomassucci P. have a sort of etiology. When exposed to dust slag of complicated structure, containing a number of toxic compounds (manganese, phosphorus and other), it is possible General toxic action, but also and severe inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and lungs (pneumonia, pulmonary edema). Hyopneumoniae occurs when the extraction and processing of ores containing sulphur, which may complicate the action of mineral dust acute inflammatory disease.
The problem of pneumoconiosis arising from the dust of complex composition and simultaneous influence of different factors, is studied very extensively, but the pathogenesis of P. studied enough, and therapy little success.