Moving staircase

Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine Lamarque, whose "Philosophy of Zoology" marched across Europe through the roar of the French revolution and Napoleonic cannons, had no idea that his glory will never fade and in the three centuries that she will blossom in barbarous Russia even more magnificent than in a nice France. No, he knew not, that will forever be canonized as immortal, although the most interesting part of his brilliant insights - especially brilliant that it was not the result of experimental studies, and the fruit of mental work,will remain misunderstood.
Lamarck (1744-1829) are considered to be a deist. According to his point of view, life is created once certain powers, which, however, has no power to interfere in its further development. Lamarck criticized, because he considered the driving force of evolution "originally inherent to the body inner feeling, as if striving to be improved", and the second driving force called the exercise (or neutragena) bodies, leading to the inheritance of acquired traits. As for the last paragraph, then this error, which fell even such great minds as Pavlov and Timiryazev, forgivable Lamarckian (in 1809!).
We all know about Lamarck that he created the first materialistic doctrine of evolution. Not everyone knows that the author of "the Philosophy of Zoology" has become a zoologist only in old age. While the sharpness of vision, clarity, precision of definitions striking. Give him the word.
"As for animals with spinal cord, from all parts of their bodies, as lying in the depths, and those that are closest to the surface, depart extremely delicate nerve fibres, not fissioning and not connected to each other, come together in the hearth of feelings... Feelings about which here there is a speech, is the result of a combination of a number of internal feelings, continuously experiencing an animal during all his life, thanks to the unremitting influence of the vital movements in its interior, with a sensitivity of... Every nerve fiber... transmits the impact suffered by this part... consider fluid (the fluid contained in the nerves of the animal, including humans, quite similar electrical matter) in these cases, moves inside the nerves from the internal parts of the body... in the direction to the center of sensations. As for animals with spinal cord, there is no doubt that they have only one simple hearth of feelings, which, in all probability, is placed on the front end of the spinal cord, at the base of the so-called brain, therefore, under the hemisphere".
There is a pretty accurate description of interoception. Lamarck describes centrifugal and centripetal link interoceptive reflexes, mechanisms of formation of emotions, demyelinating diseases, communication reflex mechanisms of thinking and, finally, even quite accurately sets out the quantitative principle: the strong and the weak irritation of receptors leads to qualitatively different results. The work of the cerebral hemispheres is also described in the book of Lamarck. The mechanisms of pain, pleasant and unpleasant sensations.
Lamarck created an orderly system of comparative psychology, anticipating the latest achievements of scientists of today. The center of this system is the view of Lamarck about "internal (interoceptive - say we) feelings, emotions", because of the emotions,is the ability to generate actions. Should we continue? Needless to say that Lamarck fits almost all biology subsequent nearly three centuries (and earlier)that the word "biology" in its current value first said Lamarque. This truly brilliant man tied evolution with the constancy of the internal environment of the organism, constancy, which is reputed to be shut Claude Bernard, who was born four years after publication Lagarkova the two volumes.
Lamarque - our contemporary and ally. Look How excited the works of Lamarck O. E. Mandelstam, in his poem "Lamarck".
The year of release of the book of Lamarck was born Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of natural selection. We all Darwinists, but Darwinism is unlikely there would be on the empty place, without Lamarck, Cuvier and others.
Although modern evolutionists believe Lamarck one of his teachers, none of them (and among physiologists) did not notice that the genius of this scientist anticipated and the concept of Claude Bernard of the constancy of the internal environment of the organism as a necessary condition of a free life, and interoception developed a century and a half later, Chernihiv, and combined both of these views, applying them to their own evolutionary doctrine.
"Nature is all faults". Science, too. As the history of mankind.
The scientific life of Lamarck is associated with the Paris Royal Botanic garden, founded in the XV century for cultivation of medicinal plants. Here, probably, d'artagnan dated Constance, Bonasie; here may have found poisonous plants, so beloved by Catherine de ' Medici. After the French revolution the garden was turned into a Museum of natural history, one of the twelve departments which took fifty years Lamarque, thirty years devoted to botany. It was a Department of the lower animals. In new Lamarck region of the great scientist managed to enter the physiological aspect in addition to its previous purely Zoological, anatomical.
Wild days brought together in Paris the best minds in the French biology is Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Cuvier, Buffon, Cabanis, Bichat, Marandi and other leading scientists. At this time one of the greatest discoveries were made Lavoisier: breathing is slow oxidation to produce heat. Cabanis (1757 - 1808) first suggested functional division of the nervous system to the "brain" and "ganglion" - these terms today correspond somatic and vegetative". The idea was supported by Bichat.
Marandi (1783-1855) came to the conclusion that the nervous system has segmental, one metameric structure, and noted the similarity of its segments in each of them - two front nerve root (motor) and two rear (sensitive). The same conclusion independently of Magandi came largest English neurologist Charles bell. So there was a law bell - Magande.
Undoubtedly, the centre of world physiology in that period was in Paris. Another "break" came later, when physiology flourished in Germany, in Russia, where there was a powerful school of physiologists and morphologists in St. Petersburg and especially in Kazan; by this time the rise of physiology in Cambridge (England). With the first stirrings of fascism began withering of science, and it took many years to be raised from the ruins physiology in Germany.
However, we are distracted. The laboratory of Magandi in the College de France inherited Claude Bernard, physiologist great and original. Its loud name can be found in the works of Turgenev and Dostoyevsky, Pisareva and Dobrolyubov. It belongs to him immortal idea of the constancy of the internal environment of an organism as an indispensable condition of a free life. This ideological formula was postulated in 1852. Bernard first established that the lumen of the vessels regulates the sympathetic nervous system, could not link this fact with the constancy of the internal environment. The blood flow in each vessel is the main regulator of the local currency and temperature. Finally, Bernard opened the glycogenic function of the liver function, adjustable oblong brain, its vegetative nerves. Probably, Bernard was influenced by the ideas of his predecessors and compatriots. His Laboratory consisted of one room, adjacent to the lecture hall. Bernard has worked with the only assistant and other psychologists admitted to the experiments only as spectators. Probably, I. M. Sechenov studied for many years respiration and gas exchange under the influence of ideas Bernard. But directly in the laboratory Bernard Sechenov was working on another! the problem, and it is for our narration is more important.