Poisonous plants

Poisonous plants - plants, temporarily or permanently containing toxins (toxins)which cause poisoning of humans and animals. This group includes various kinds of plants. Toxicity of plants due to the content in them chemical compounds of different classes and groups: alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, coumarins, essential oils, tar and other Education and the accumulation of toxic substances in plants depends on their age and vegetation phases. In some, the greatest concentration of poison observed before or during flowering, the other - in the maturing of fruits or later. The concentration of toxic substances in the bodies of various plants. Some species are more of them in fruits, others in the roots, the third - in the flowers, leaves and bark. Some poisonous plants poisonous substances can accumulate in only one body (glycoside amygdalin only be found in the seeds of bitter almonds, plums, cherries and others). Fresh plant is generally more toxic than dried. Toxicity of plants of the same species depends on the area and location of growth, soil and weather conditions. Many of poisonous plants and their poisons used in medical practice in non-toxic (therapeutic) doses of atropine, giostsiamin, morphine, strychnine, securilan, heart glycosides and some other poisonous plants prepare insecticidal preparations (pyrethrum of chamomile Caucasian and Dalmatian, anabasine from Anabasis leafless and others).
Poisoning with poisonous plants, people are living and production. The latter arise in working for growing, gathering, drying and processing of medicinal plants. Professional poisoning with poisonous plants are rarely severe, but can cause momentary loss of ability to work. Poisoning with poisonous plants occur: 1) in contact with their poison in the stomach; 2) by touching it or hit their juice on the skin; 3) by inhalation of sputtered particles or volatile substances emitted poisonous plants. Rare cases of a poisoning with poison plants, mistakenly applied to ensure that you entered in large doses intravenously or subcutaneously. More often poisoning occurs when ingested poisonous plants in the stomach from overdose of drugs for self-medication by the Council of traditional healers, or eating cooked for the treatment of tinctures instead of alcoholic beverages. Sometimes the cause of poisoning is a wrong use of poisonous plants instead like him edible plants. Often happen poisoning left unattended children seductive on appearance with poisonous fruits (less roots and other parts of plants). Often poisoning poisonous mushrooms (see). Below is a list of some plants of flora of the USSR, the most frequent cause of poisoning people.

Toxicity of plants caused contained in them alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, toxalbumin, organic acids, essential oils, resins and other toxic (poisonous) substances. In some species of plants content of toxic substances is so significant that hit even small quantities of these plants in the human body cause more or less severe health disorder poisoning. These plants belong to the poisonous plants. A number of toxic substances in poisonous plants depend on the phase of plant development, its age and the conditions of places of growth (climate, soil, and so on). Some species of plants are the most poisonous fruit, others - roots or roots, at the third - bark, the fourth - flowers or leaves. Usually fresh plant more poisonous than dried. For prolonged storage the toxicity of the plant is reduced. Many plant poisons quite resistant to temperature and other factors. Meat from animals that have died as a result of poisoning by some plants (for example, Aconite), is poisonous.
In plants of the same kind, and especially in closely related species, almost always contain the same or similar in chemical composition of toxic substances. However, similar in composition and action of substances can be produced in a plant, belonging to a completely different genera and families. For example, poisonous alkaloid nicotine produce many plants families Equisetum, plaunovyh, weariness, legumes, Estoniya, Solanaceae, Compositae.
The sustainability of the person and animals by the poisonous plants are very different. For example, berries belladonna, causing severe poisoning in humans, harmless for rabbits, chickens, Drozdov and other birds; highly poisonous alkaloid colchicine almost harmless for frogs, etc.,
Many plant poisons in small doses-valuable therapeutic tool, such as cardiac glycosides actions, some saponins, alkaloids (morphine, strychnine, securilan, atropine, scopolamine, kolhamin, tsitizin, pilocarpine and other). From a number of poisonous plants obtained drugs insecticidal action: feverfew from Dalmatian and Caucasian daisies, anabasine from Anabasis leafless and other
Usually poisoning with poisonous plants occurs when contact plants, their parts or they contained poisonous substances through the mouth into the stomach, through the respiratory system (inhalation of dust particles poisonous plants or emitted volatile substances), as well as through the skin in touch with poisonous plants, their juices or contained poisonous plants substances.
The most frequent cases of poisoning of children in areas of growth poisonous plants in the use of poisonous plants for self and the mistaken use of poisonous plants for food instead of similar mind edible plants. Criminal poisoning with poisonous plants currently are rare. Often food poisoning from mushrooms (see). Poisoning through the respiratory tract are usually professional. They are observed among the hop pickers, Stolyarov for some kinds of wood (for example, wood beresklet), people dealing with medicinal plants (for example, belladonna, securinega, Magnolia vine), etc. are Less frequent household poisoning volatile substances emitted poisonous plants. So, located in the large bouquets Magnolia, Lily of tuberose, cherry, poppy seeds can cause discomfort, headache, dizziness. Contact poisoning arise from contact with poisonous plants, and have a variety of skin lesions (see Dermatitis). Sometimes got on the skin poison (for example, active ingredients wolves bark) has and resorptive effect. Especially often cause dermatitis different types of Hogweed, nettle, Buttercup, clematis, fraxinella, milkweed, sumac, celandine and bred in the rooms poisonous primrose - the primrose back conical.

poisonous plants
Poisonous plants. Fig. 1. Sumy East. Fig. 2. Fraxinella. Fig. 3. Potatoes and fruit; g - green tuber containing solanine. Fig. 4. Monosemantic Daursky. Fig. 5. Crow's eyes. Fig. 6. Privet ordinary. Fig. 7. Bittersweet. Fig. 8. Primrose back conical. Fig. 9. Daphne.