Indicators age of professional groups

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5

The formation of the age composition of the individual professional groups flows in the complex conditions of the transformation of production, active labour allocation of new, professional reorientation in connection with expanded opportunities in General and special education, mobility conditions and regime of work. Changes and population health, partial manifestation of which is the high perejivaet retirement age. In General, the age structure of the employed is an indicator of the actions of all the variety of socio-economic factors, which play an important role according to the occupational environment and the type of employment to the age level of working capacity of the body. The greater part of professional groups, the proportion of older persons and the retirement age, the easier and better work, the greater use of labour potential of the population, the easier it is to solve the questions of employment of elderly and old people losing the ability to work in difficult, strenuous and hazardous industries. By the age-related borders all professions can be divided into 3 large groups.
I group combines classes in which the labour of the population over the age of 40-45 years, severely restricted or almost completely excluded, therefore, as part of the professional staff dominated by young people. The degree of limitation of working age, this group of professions divided into 3 subgroups (1.1, 1.2, 1.3). In the second group includes activities in which the employment of persons of working age are relatively evenly.
III group consists of classes that attract labor predominantly elderly population, including the population of retirement age.
In the classification of occupational groups based considered the upper limit of the age (X 2= =MX + 2υ) to the General pension age (men-60 years, women-55 years). In the sub-group 1.1 related profession men with x2 up to 50 and women under 45 years of age, to the subgroup of 1.2-50-54,9 and 45-49,9 years for a subgroup 1.3-55-59,9 and 50-54,9 years, to group II - 60-64,9 and 55-59,9 years, group III - men with x2 above 65 years and women with x2 above 60 years.
In 1959 to professions with limitation of working age on average more than 10 years were 1/5 (21,8%) proportion of employed men and limit less than 10 years - 1/4 (25,8%), respectively, of the composition of employed women to these groups were 3.6 and 44%. In 1970, the ratio of groups in male and female composition has changed dramatically, but these changes are somewhat different.
Among men decreased the number of trades and the number of persons working in conditions that restrict the age of 50 years (1.6%), but increased the share of subgroups 1.2, 1.3 (57,4%) and group II (25,4%), i.e. the number of occupations with less severe limitation of working age. Along with this has significantly decreased the relative share of group III (15,6%), describing the prevalence of extended boundaries of professional health of men.
About 45% of women are concentrated in occupations II groups with relatively normal use of the labour force (X2=55-59,9 years). No professions with the age boundaries of professional performance below 45 years, and only 5% of women are employed in occupations, which are characterized by the maximum age 45-49,9 years. At the same time, significantly decreased the proportion of women employed in occupations with advanced age boundaries of health (from 44.5 to 27,6%).
However, as in 1959, options intermediate, modal and upper limit" ages for certain professions is very different from each other. It demonstrates the existence and currently kinds of labour, various severity, intensity and hazard, the power of manifestation favorable and harmful effects on the body working. In addition, for contingent of older employees working and retirement ages, the number of professions with adverse nature of the impact is larger than for the young. More detailed consideration of the list of professions depending on the values of x2, and not from functional-production kindred professions gives an opportunity to judge the character of the dynamics of age limits occupational health practice with different intensity of physical and mental components. It is established that identical or similar age limits occupational health are formed in different kinds of work in various occupational environment (Fig. 3, 4).

Fig. 3. Types of changes in the age structure of the individual professional groups for 1959 (1) - 1970 (2) ,
On the x - axis working age (years); on the axis of ordinates the number of persons of this age per 1,000 workers. A - stampers and Pressman; B - pharmacists and dispensers; - workers of irrigated agriculture; G - heads of the state bodies and their structural subdivisions; I - men; II - women.

Rice, 4. Types of changes in the age structure of the individual professional groups for 1959 (I)- 1970 (2) ,
On the x - axis working age (years); on the axis of ordinates the number of persons of this age per 1,000 workers. A - millers; B - drillers; In - machinists, mechanics of construction and road machinery; D engineers.