Polonius

Polonium (polonium on, Ro) - radioactive chemical element VI groups of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev, number 84. Most important is its isotope Ro210 - alpha emitter (see alpha-radiation) with a half-life 138,4 day, which is one of the products of decay of radium
(see) - Ra226. Polonium is used for preparation of neutron sources (see the Neutron radiation), and is also used for some applications. Polonium easily pollutes the surrounding area and can get into the body. It is highly toxic.

Polonium (polonium on, Ro) is a chemical element of group VI periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Ever since. the number 84, at. weight 209. It is known 24 radioactive and stable isotope polonium, including Ro210 (RaF) - the first radioactive isotope, outdoor by radiochemical analysis in 1898, M. Curie-Sklodowska and P. Curie. Ro210 has a half-life T 138,401 day is one of the decay products of uranium (see) and in small quantities can be produced from uranium ore, or directly from radium (see) and radon (see). Large quantities of polonium get in a nuclear reactor after irradiation of bismuth with neutrons. Ro refers to the number of high activity of alpha-emitters: 0.2 mg Polonia corresponding activity of 1 Curie. The energy of alpha radiation Ro210- 5,30 MeV. Emitting α particle, Ro210 turns into a stable isotope of lead. Ro210 emits also ' -quanta with energy 0,804 and 0,084 MeV, but the release of their so insignificant that ' radiation it almost does not matter.
Highly toxic polonium and especially dangerous when injected into the body through the respiratory organs. For polonium is characterized by diffuse distribution in the body with primary accumulation in the bodies of the reticuloendothelial system. The elimination of polonium take place mainly within the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, most intensively in the first days, then very slowly.
The clinical picture of acute lesions P. essentially not different from manifestations of acute radiation sickness (see), caused by external radiation. The diagnosis of chronic intoxication is based on sanitary and hygienic data and analysis of biological environments on the content P.
First aid with the defeat of polonium comes to measures to accelerate its removal from the body. You must wash the skin, change of linen, washing stomach and intestines, excessive drinking, diuretics. The course of treatment by preparation for the patients (5% solution intramuscularly within 10 days 10-20 ml); in the future - restorative treatment, symptomatic treatment and diet therapy. Maximum permissible dose of polonium in humans 0,03-0,04 mccoury (in terms of critical organs - spleen and kidneys).
Maximum permissible concentration of P. in the air of 1 Curie/L. To create
such concentration is enough to have one particle radius of 0.1 MK 10 m3 of air. In ensuring radiation safety is the main task is the prevention of air pollution and surfaces in the laboratory, as well as clothing and skin of people in contact with P. (see Radiation hygiene).