Polyuria

Polyuria - increase in the amount of urine (more than 1800 ml per day). There are polyuria vnepochechny and kidney. Vnepochechny polyuria usually linked to the convergence of swelling after taking diuretics, a large amount of water is observed in diabetes insipidus and diabetes, endocrine disorders. Polyuria is usually accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of urine (hypotenuse). Only when diabetes polyuria has a high specific gravity of urine (gipermenorea).
Renal polyuria occurs in diseases of the kidneys, accompanied by a lesion of the distal nephron, renal insufficiency (pyelonephritis, wrinkled kidney). In chronic pyelonephritis polyuria happens especially often in the range of 2-3 liters of urine per day with a strong hyposthenia.

Polyuria (from the Greek. poly - lot and uron - urine) - increase of urine per day. About polyuria say when daily diuresis exceeds 1800 ml
The pathogenesis of P. extremely diverse, as well as its diagnostic value.
Polyuria may be a symptom of a number of diseases of the kidneys and of the neuroendocrine system. There are P. ekstremalnogo and renal origin.
Extrarenally polyuria not directly depends on organic lesions of the kidneys.
The Genesis of it due to the following factors: increase of water content in the internal environment of the organism, a violation of the neuroendocrine regulation of urination and increased concentration osmotically active substances in the blood plasma (the glomerular filtrate). Polyuria, due to high water content in the internal environment of the body may occur both in physiological conditions - when the use of large quantities of liquid, water-melons, grapes, mineral water etc., and in pathological - due psychogenic reinforced drinking (polydipsia), and also in the period of toe edema and convalescents after some infections.
The greatest clinical significance extrarenally P. due to a violation of the neuroendocrine regulation of diuresis.
Polyuria such Genesis is the leading symptom of diabetes, in which there is an insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland, which is the main stimulator of water reabsorption at the distal renal tubule.
This polyuria may be after the attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia, cardiac asthma, colic, hypertensive crisis, migraine and other pathological States, proceeding by the mechanism of vegetative crises, accompanied by a temporary breach of the production of antidiuretic hormone pituitary due to violations of the functional state of cerebral centers that regulate the secretion of this hormone. Extrarenally P. is one of the main manifestations of primary giperaldosteronizm, a so-called syndrome horse observed in benign tumors glomerular zone adrenal - giperaldosteronizma.
Polyuria, due to the high concentration osmotically active substances in the blood plasma (such as glucose), is one of the major symptoms of diabetes.
This mechanism P. observed in the use of diuretic means that lower tubular reabsorption.
Renal P. occurs in diseases of the kidneys, accompanied by a sharp decrease in functioning parenchyma (final stage of arteriolosclerosis kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and so on); in diseases that disrupt the function of the renal tubules and collecting tubes (pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, kidney stone disease, prostatic hypertrophy, compression of the urinary tract tumors, and so on). Renal P. characteristic also for the second stage of acute renal failure. In these cases, it points to the restoration of the function of nephrons and therefore is favorable prognostic sign.
In all cases, polyuria observed phenomena Hypo - and isostenuria.