Specificity of Central nervous system

Changes attraction, motivation, emotional state, vegetative functions and psychopathological condition indicate the primary lesion of the Central nervous system in alcoholism. Functional changes in this system are found even in the rare use of alcoholic beverages.
Moderate intoxication passes two stages: excitation and braking. The length depends on the individual characteristics of the organism reaction to the situation, States. During the first stage on EEG signs activation: disappears And rhythm, you receive fast Ostroverkhova activity, response to irritation persists. In the second stage A-rhythm is generated, slow waves even prevail, the response to stimuli decreases. Thus, the stage of intoxication due to the functional changes in the Central nervous system. First of all change the tone of the reticular formation.
According to I. A. Cetinskog (1980), alcohol increases the permeability of the blood brain barrier and other tissue barriers for toxic substances and himself easily permeates through these barriers. At the very first minute of intoxication concentration of alcohol in the blood and brain tissue is aligned. This fact many authors explain low dehydrogenase (enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the brain tissue.
In addition, from the blood into the tissue of the brain enters a product of oxidation of alcohol acetaldehyde that possess toxic properties, expressed stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.
Depending on the dose and duration of use of alcohol, violated the redox processes in brain tissue. I. A. Sytinsky (1980) found that the decrease in glucose utilization is due to an increased oxidation of adenine dinucleotide under the influence of increasing the content of acetaldehyde.
Great effects of alcohol on the metabolism of proteins and amino acids. According to Roach (1971), even for a single admission of alcohol decreases the concentration of aspartic and glutamic acids, increased content of glutamine, reduced L-DOPA. The maximum decrease in the rate of protein synthesis is revealed during severe withdrawal symptoms.
Depending on the stage of the disease changing nature of desproteinemia. In the result of the gradual reduction of protein synthesis-100 participating in the processes of memory and learning, reduced and distorted the synthesis of neurotransmitters, and it is clinically manifested by various intellectual and emotional-volitional disorders (Gushchin A. P., 1974; Yakovlev, I., 1974; I. Anokhin P., 1976).
Some researchers have suggested that alcohol affects the centers of positive emotional areas of the hypothalamus. As a result of such exposure occurs dependence them callee (Morozov, Century, I. Anokhina P, 1983).
In the pathogenesis of leading manifestations of alcoholism, pathological attraction to alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol deliri, certainly play a leading role violations of catecholamine and dopamine systems. According to research conducted by members of the all-Union research Institute on General and forensic psychiatry, in patients with abstinence syndrome and preddeliria concentration of dopamine in blood was on p.108-114% more than the norm, with delusional syndrome - 358%, and in patients without signs of abstinence 48%. Thus, there is a correlation between the severity of vegetative and psychopathological manifestations and dopamine levels in the blood.
The amount excreted in the urine catecholamines in people suffering from alcoholism much more than in healthy, indicating a constant tension in the system of catecholamines in the adrenal glands. Even in healthy people in a single admission of alcohol excretion of catecholamines from the urine increases. After the disappearance of withdrawal symptoms it is normalized (Kogan B. M., 1976; Mendelssohn I. and others, 1969).
I. P. Anokhin (1981), L. F. Panchenko et al. (1981) in the experiment studied the participation of endogenous opiate system in formation of the main symptoms of alcoholism. Opiate system is directly related to the formation of emotional States, motivations, mental disorders, getting addicted to drugs, including morphine and its derivatives. The authors found the occurrence of irreversible change opiate receptors in acute and chronic introduction of alcohol.
Daois (1970), Walsh (1979) found that in the process of destruction of alcohol and interaction its breakdown products with catecholamines in the body can be formed tetrahydrozoline - substances with morphine-like effect.
Thus, in alcoholism opiate system and metabolism of dopamine are closely related. In rats with a strong attraction to alcohol and given free access to the introduction of opiate receptor blockers contributed to the development of pronounced withdrawal syndrome and increased alcohol consumption (Anokhin I. P., 1981).