Congenital heart defects

Congenital heart defects occur due to malformations of the heart walls or departing from the heart and large vessels. More common: cleft blood (botallowa) flow, cleft or atrial septal, the narrowing of the pulmonary trunk, stenosis of the aortic and narrow isthmus (coarctation) of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot (stenosis pulmonary trunk, cleft septal hypertrophy of the right ventricle and dextroposition aorta with its location on the output of both ventricles). Clinical manifestations in children allocate congenital heart defects, not accompanied by cyanosis (venous blood is not tainted by blood), and heart accompanied by cyanosis (reset venous blood in a blood channel). The former include stenosis pulmonary trunk, coarctation of aorta, stenosis of the left venous holes and aortic, fibroblasts, dextrocardia, cleft of the ductus arteriosus. Children have a weakness, slow physical development, frequent inflammatory diseases of organs of breath, dizziness, fatigue, etc. However, some congenital heart defects of the first group cyanosis still occurs, but only under certain conditions (for example, pneumonia) or at an older age, as a permanent discharge of blood from the left heart in the right gradually leads to increased pressure and decompensation in the pulmonary circulation. Periodic or after the occurrence of cyanosis observed in the cleft or atrial septal, arterial duct, etc.
Finally, the number of heart diseases (the second group) are born with a permanent cyanosis due to discharge of venous blood in a blood channel (TOF). In children of early age is reported seizures of asphyxia with loss of consciousness, convulsions and often fatal. In older children bouts of breathlessness lead to a forced position (child squatting or lies prone). Nail phalanxes of fingers strained by type of drum sticks and watch glasses.
In the diagnosis of congenital heart disease is of great importance auscultation, as most of them is indicated by the presence of noise.
So, in the cleft of the ductus arteriosus heard rough systolediastole2 noise, like that of the machine, in II intercostal space to the left of the sternum and all over the surface of the heart. The presence of coarse systolic noise characteristic of Fallot's tetrad. Other congenital heart defects also are accompanied by noise, character and localization of which depend on the type of heart disease. When the number of heart diseases there are changes in blood pressure. So, for cleft of the ductus arteriosus is characterized by normal maximum and low minimum pressure. Stenosis aortic there is a difference between blood pressure on the upper and lower extremities.
If on the basis of clinical symptoms and auscultatory data suspect congenital heart disease, the child should be sent for consultation to specialists, so as to clarify the diagnosis requires the use of additional methods of examination (ECG, FCG, catheterization, contrast x-ray techniques and other). Early referral for consultation will correctly identify the tactics of treatment, especially in recent years when the number of congenital heart disease , surgical treatment is carried out in the first few years or even months of a child's life.