Postpartum period

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Postpartum period, puerperium (puerperium), begins with the separation of the placenta and ends after the disappearance of all reversible changes in sexual apparatus and in the entire body of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth.

Postpartum period (puerperal period) - starts with the expulsion of the placenta and lasts 6-8 weeks. In this period, the reverse development (involution) of organs and systems, in addition to the mammary glands, which was amended in connection with pregnancy and childbirth. Special attention deserves the early postpartum period (the first 2-3 hours after birth), when possible threatening complications such as bleeding from the genital tract, tribal shock (see Postpartum diseases). During this time the postpartum women should be in the family room under observation of the midwives.
Postpartum period is characterized by a number of processes in the body; the most significant of them are the uterine involution and the beginning of the secretory function of the mammary glands. After birth the bottom of the uterus when emptied the bladder is at the level of the navel; then the bottom of the uterus lowered approximately on 1 sm and on the 10-12 day is at the level of pubic joint. The cervix is formed from the inside out: an internal Xev closed to 7-10 th day, and the outer in 3 weeks after birth. Discharge from the cervix (lochia) in the first days of bright red color, with a 3-day becoming brown-red, with 7 to 8-day - yellowish, and from the 10th - light; to the 20-th day lochia disappear.
Important indicators of trends postpartum period are the body temperature and heart rate postpartum women and adolescent girls, who must daily be noted on the temperature sheet. Usually after childbirth body temperature is normal, except for two observed sometimes climbs through 12 hours after birth to 37.5-37,6 degrees and on the 3rd day to 37.5 to 37.9 degrees, that is associated with the absorption of uterine its contents; pulse full, smooth, often slowed down to 60 and 50 beats per minute. Postpartum women and adolescent girls (often who already had children) feeding sometimes complain of painful contractions; in these cases, you can apply antipyrine or amidopyrine (pyramidonum), phenacetin (0.3-0.5 g). In the postpartum period may be a delay urination (filled bladder shifts the uterus up) and in the first two days delay chairs; may appear hemorrhoids because of hemorrhoidal veins at the end of pregnancy were expanded. When the delay urination can be put on the lower abdomen bubble with warm water, postpartum women may take. In the absence of the chair on the 3rd day after birth is a cleansing enema.
In the postpartum period in connection with the existing wound surface in the uterus, and often at the crotch there is a risk of infection postpartum women and adolescent girls. In this period it is very important to correctly organize care. The chamber puerperas should systematically be a breeze. Bed linen must be clean and well-ironed. On average one third sheets should be put oilcloth, laying on her small diaper. They change every time the toilet postpartum women and adolescent girls, which is the washing of external genitals and re-doing the bed. Toilet exercise 4 times a day first 2 days and then to discharge 2 times a day. When the toilet under the pelvis postpartum women and adolescent girls put a bedpan, then, pouring out of mugs esmarkha or jug of warm weak solution of potassium permanganate, wash external genitals cotton topferm on long forceps, with movement of the produce from the top down. After washing the pubis and external genitals dry dry sterile cotton topferm; the anus dried up last.
After childbirth and in the normal course of the postpartum period postpartum women on the 2nd day can get out of bed. The food in the postpartum period must be energy-dense, with plenty of vitamins.