Tableware

Crockery for preparation, storage, use and transportation of food and drinks).
Crockery must be easy to use, and maintenance of the purity; resistant to high and low temperature, salts, acids, alkalis; the internal surface must be smooth, without cracks and other defects that do not affect the appearance, the chemical composition, the smell and taste of the content, not to allocate in it of harmful substances (lead, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, and other). Metal tableware made of steel, aluminium and their alloys, tin, brass, silver , etc. as coatings utensils used tin, Nickel, chromium, varnishes, enamel, glaze and other High hygienic properties differs stainless steel cookware, as it has chemical resistance, durability, does not modify the organoleptic properties and chemical composition of food. Copper cookware is permitted for cooking only after the application of tinned coatingand (see). Not being palude dishes for frying, copper pots for jam, cast iron boilers for water and a bowl for the test. The zinced ware can be used exclusively for the storage of water and solids. Ceramic tableware (pottery, porcelain, faience, majolica) is covered with glaze and fired for hardness. In ware-resistant glass can be fried and cooked foods. Paper tableware is made of elastic paperboard grades and special sorts of paper; paper, wax-coated ware cannot be kept hot fluids and fat products after single ingestion such dishes must be destroyed. A widespread plastic tableware. A list of materials allowed for the manufacture of food dishes and coatings, periodically published by the Ministry of health of the USSR.
Research of quality of tableware are produced by special instructions of the Ministry of health of the USSR. When boiling in a pot of aluminium alloys within 30 minutes of 2% solution of acetic acid should not detected heavy metals, antimony and arsenic. The same requirements should be enamel coating of the glassware boiling with 4% solution of acetic acid. For research of plastic utensils apply a special salt solutions and food acids. This should not be detected in the hood unpleasant smell (of formaldehyde, phenol and others), change the color of the dishes or the presence of the above harmful substances.

The utensils is produced from metal, glass, porcelain and plastic. To appoint distinguished P. kitchen, dining room and the tea. P. all kinds should have smooth pore-free surface, easy to clean and wash. The materials used for the manufacture of crockery, should not contain toxic substances, passing in the food and drinks that change their color, smell and taste. The inner surface etc. have to be covered and harmless insulating layer (enamel, lacquer, Paluda and others) and to avoid parts of coatings in food.
Metal P., mainly kitchen, rarely dining room and the tea, is made from steel, aluminium and their alloys, tin, brass, silver, etc. as coatings utensils used tin, Nickel, chromium, varnishes, enamel, glaze and other High hygienic properties differs P. stainless steel. It has a lot of chemical resistance and impact strength, does not affect the organoleptic properties of food and does not contain harmful substances, passing in the food. Cookware made of materials, which include chrome-Nickel alloys, chrome, enamel and glazed, should not give by boiling during 30 minutes in 4% acetic acid salts of iron, copper, chromium, zinc, tin and lead.
For the production of aluminum cookware use of sheet aluminium and its alloys meeting the requirements of GOST. In the secondary aluminum alloys and duralumin Pets arsenic content of less than 0.015%, lead to 0.15%, Zn 0.3%, the iron of 0.85-1.2% and copper 3,5%. Aluminum, aluminium and their alloys are not resistant to acids, alkali and chlorine compounds, under influence of which is easily destroyed oxide film of aluminum; the metal surface is exposed to corrosion. Cast polished aluminum P. more resistant to corrosion than pressed. Low concentration of acids and alkalis, usually contained in food products and food, has no corrosive action on aluminum P., except a darkening of the surface due to the formation of unstable and easily removable connections.
Main requirements to a widespread enamelware are durability, stability and safety enamel, which should not crack and crumble, and allocate eating harmful substances, such as arsenic, lead, copper, zinc, antimony, cadmium).
Copper cookware is permitted for cooking only after the application of tinned coatingand (see). The zinced ware, unstable to food acids, prohibited for cooking and food storage. Galvanized buckets, tanks, etc. are allowed to store water.
The highest demands are made on the plates, intended for preparation and storage of food (cooking pots, pans, tanks and other). These requirements best suited for cooking boilers of stainless steel and other corrosion resistant alloys that have sanded smooth inner surface. The inner surface of copper and iron cooking pots and pans and flushing cisterns necessarily exposed hot-tinning. Cooking can be black iron boilers. The nature of heat and heat carrier the best in hygienically are electric cooking boilers, then steam and gas with indirect heating.
From ceramic materials made of pottery, porcelain, faience, majolica P. Inner surface of the pottery P., completely superseded currently, porcelain and faience, must be covered fittowindow glaze. Porcelain and faience utensils covered, as a rule, glaze; it completely satisfies safety requirements.
The main requirement for the ware of plastics is the strength of connections and lack of transition parts of the material in food or drinks. Assessment of P. plastic is made by a special technique, with P. should not give more than 20 mg of formaldehyde per 1 l of 1% acetic acid hoods.