Sweating

Sweating is a physiological process, some mammals and humans, accompanied by a selection on the skin surface of the body specialized fluid - pot - product of activity skin (sweat) glands. The pot contains 98-99% water, urea (about 0.1%), uric acid, creatinine, serine, fats, volatile fatty acids, soap, cholesterol, salt, alkali metals (dominated by NaCl - 0,3%), paired ether-sulfuric acid and aromatic hydroxy acid. The sweat glands in humans are located mainly on the face, palms, soles, groin and armpit. Sweat glands along with the kidneys, shall remove from the organism products of an exchange (excretory function of the sweat glands).
Especially increasing the value of the sweat glands as organs of excretion kidney disease. The sweat glands are taking part in the maintenance of water-salt balance in the body. The sweat glands is also very significant role in the thermoregulation (see).
The higher centres of sweating are located in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and in the medulla.
The mechanism of perspiration. The sweat glands are innervation from sympathetic departments of vegetative nervous system. Sympathetic neurons that Innervate the sweat glands are located in the side horns (from I to II breast lumbar segment) of the spinal cord. Typical segmental the principle of innervation of the sweat glands, i.e. from certain segments of the spinal cord depart fiber to glands of certain parts of the body. As the sweat glands receive sympathetic innervation, sweating can be observed not only at the irritation of thermal receptors of the body surface, but also other conditions characterized by the initiation of the so-called sympathetic-adrenal system (fear, pain and so on).

Sweating - the process of formation and allocation of sweat glands on the skin surface of the pot. A person sweating is mainly acronymy sweat glands; apocrine secretion glands insignificant. Animals Sweating is mainly glands with apocrine type of secretion. Sweat glands (see) are placed on the body unevenly. Topography of sweat on the skin surface in all healthy people mostly the same (see below).
In humans and some animals (monkey, horse, donkey, mule) sweating plays a significant role in the thermoregulation (see). The presence of a large number of sweat glands and the lack of hair on a significant body surface enhance the value of P. as thermal-regulating mechanism. P. also involved in maintaining water and salt balance of the body (see Water exchange; Mineral metabolism, Metabolism and energy).
An important role is played by perspiration and excretory functions kidney disease.
Total sweating explore different methods; definition of weight loss tested through various periods of time; absorption of perspiration from the skin of different absorbers; carbon capture in special chambers evaporated moisture. Sweating in some areas you can explore an electrometric method based on the change in resistance of the skin. Monitoring P. separate sweat glands can be made under a microscope or through a magnifying glass, brushing pre-researched area of skin cedar oil. To monitor the intensity of sweating in some areas of the body used colorimetric methods: on the skin surface causing any chemical compound that with strong perspiration painted; the intensity P. judged by the brightness and the rate of appearance of color. Most often used iodine-starch method, the technique of which are described below.
Sweating can be enhanced by applying diaphoretic means, as well as directly acting on the secretory cells of sweat glands or matching nerves electric shock, heating, introducing into the skin acetylcholine, pilocarpine, physostigmine, Fiziol. the solution is. To reduce sweating by the introduction of atropine. P. is mainly reflex. Receptors reflex sweating are located in the skin, internal organs and muscles. Adequate stimuli these extero - and interoception are high ambient temperature, intake of hot and spicy food, abundant liquid intake, physical activity, fever, emotional experiences. Efferent nerves that Innervate the sweat glands, belong to the sympathetic nervous system, but have cholinergic nature. Because sweating can be significantly enhanced by introducing not only acetylcholine, but adrenaline (especially in some animals, such as horses), there is reason to believe that the sweat glands innervated by also adrenergic fibers. According to Gutmann and Sheet (L. Guttman road, S. F. List), Central and efferent part reflex arc consist of 5 parts: 1) from the crust to the hypothalamus; 2) from the hypothalamus to medulla; 3) oblong brain, partially crossing, to the side horns spinal cord; 4) from the cells horns lateral spinal cord to the sympathetic nodes; 5) from sympathetic nodes to the sweat glands.
A person kernel secretory nerves sweat glands head, neck and the upper part of the chest between the past and sixth cervical thoracic segments of the spinal cord. Kernel potootdelenie.pri nerves of the upper extremities are located between the fifth and seventh spinal segments; kernel potootdelenie.pri nerves of the lower limbs are in the last thoracic and upper lumbar segments. However, for the normal exercise of reflex sweating in the heat irritation requires the participation not only of the spinal cord, but the higher departments of a CNS, first of all the hypothalamic region. According to many researchers, in reflex sweating participate tuber cinereum and cerebral cortex (box 6 on Brodman). In addition to the nervous effects on the function of the sweat glands affect the endocrine glands, in particular the thyroid gland.
In children sweating and thermoregulation involving the hypothalamus reach full development only 2-3-year life.
The sweating occurs constantly, even at low ambient temperatures; with increasing temperature rises and when the air temperature is above 33° becomes the main form of thermoregulation. At room temperature the body surface evaporates 0,5-0,6 liters of water per day. At high temperatures and heavy physical work P. may reach 10-12 liters per day. Long and persistent high temperatures reduces perspiration; for example, the inhabitants of tropical countries Kosha at high temperature of the air is dry and thermoregulation is mainly due to the nervous-reflexive, trim heat production and heat loss.
In an emotional effects (anxiety, fear) in the first place, increased sweating in the palms and soles, especially at the rear of the fingertips. Sweat fields on the palm coincide with the accumulation of receptor apparatus. Normal sweating palm promotes better sense of touch, perception, and in some cases and retention of the subject. On the palms and soles are missing the sebaceous glands and sweat, lubricating skin, makes it more elastic, soft and less vulnerable.