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The consumption of alcoholic beverages

Dynamics of consumption of alcoholic drinks in economically developed countries.
Alcoholism is not only a medical-social but also an economic problem, as the production of alcoholic beverages in many countries is one of the major sources of national income.
Production and consumption of alcoholic beverages in different countries allow to indirectly estimate the prevalence of alcoholism, because there is some connection between production and consumption, on the one hand, and the strengthening of drunkenness and the increasing number of patients with alcoholism. Statistics of production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is an important basis for the study of the problem of alcoholism. In particular, the questions of fight against alcoholism is impossible to find without the study of the role of alcohol in the economy of a state, and without the study of the nature of alcohol.
For many countries, the production of alcohol is one of the major industries and exports. As noted by J. Moser (1974), France's wine industry employs 10% of the population, and half of the wine production is exported; in the UK alcohol is third of the sum of exports (186 million pounds). Only from the sale of beer in 1969-1970, the revenues of the Federal government of Austria amounted to 370 million. [M. Sargent, 1973]. On the purchase of alcoholic beverages in Australia spent about $ 230. per inhabitant per year *. Statistics of the consumption of alcoholic beverages uses the term "consumption per capita". This value is obtained as follows: the number of produced and imported for the year alcoholic beverages subtract removed drinks; obtained for each drink sum is divided by the number of inhabitants of a given country. Thus obtained "per capita consumption" of each drink recalculation on absolute alcohol. The result is the value of consumption of alcoholic drinks in absolute alcohol for a given country for a certain period of time.
Calculated this way, "per capita consumption of alcohol, as rightly notice 3. A. Gurevich, A. 3. Zalewski (1930), has two main drawbacks: offset age-sexual, social, professional, territorial and other differences in the use of alcoholic beverages; receiving data "per capita consumption of alcohol for a certain length of time in a country encounters great difficulties, often this value does not correspond to true. In addition, it is not considered illegal manufacture of beverages, which, like France, is 50% from a legal, and in some years equal to it. Ignored and population migration, although tourists are not always drink alcohol in equal amounts from abroad indigenous people [J. Moser, 1974].
Certain difficulties encountered in recalculation on absolute alcohol wines and Beers, in which the percentage of alcohol is different not only in different countries, but even within the same country.
In connection with various age-sexual structure of the population in different countries many authors propose to conduct the calculation of per capita consumption of alcohol only on the adult population (15 years and older). However, it is not correct when the relevant calculations exclude all children up to 15 years. Many point to the consumption of alcoholic drinks by children under the age of 15.
The study of the annual consumption of alcoholic drinks, taking into account the different social groups and age-sex composition of the population is possible only under condition of daily records on the number and proportion of drinks a lot of people. However, this work is very time-consuming and still it anywhere and nobody was held. Attempts to determine the amount of alcohol consumed by the method of anonymous questionnaires, previously widely used [Izraelson 3. I., Petkov centuries, 1926; Rosenblum And. And., 1927; Obukhov P. F., 1929, and others], is far from perfect. Imperfect well as the study of the consumption of alcoholic beverages on monetary costs of alcohol in the General budget of different population groups.

* High Price for Our Heavy Drinking.- Outlook Ecos, 1979, N 21, p. 17-22.