The needs of young children in essential nutrients and energy

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Correct catering provides that the intake not only adequate amounts of nutrients, but also their specific qualitative composition corresponding adaptation possibilities of the gastrointestinal tract of the child and the level of exchange processes. This provision was named the concept of a balanced diet. [Pokrovskiy A. A., 1966]. It provides for the definition of the absolute quantities of each dietary factors and their strict correlation between themselves when taking into account physiological and biochemical characteristics of the organism of the child. During individual development of an organism of these relationships change, which determines the magnitude of the age and needs of the person for nutrients and energy. In this regard, in each age requires its special formula of power. It is determined by the level of metabolic processes, changing in the course of biochemical maturation of the child's organism, physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of adaptation to food as the growth and development of the child.
Through certain intervals physiological norm needs in essential nutrients and energy are reviewed that is dictated by the necessity of changing socio-biological conditions and a new level of methodological approaches to the study of metabolic processes in human organism.
In the Institute of nutrition of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR in recent years, a study was carried out to clarify the physiological needs of children in essential nutrients and energy, which were then approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR, 1982, [Fateyeva E. M., Ladoga K. S., 1985; Ladoga K. S. and others, 1986, 1987].
Given the high rates of growth and development, peculiar to children and especially babies, the need for essential nutrients and energy are defined in the first year of life for three age periods (0-3, and 4-6 and 7-12 months), for 1 kg of body weight of the child and taking into account the type of feeding.
The most important indicator of food requirements are primarily power expenditure. The daily needs of the children in the energy changes with age, as can be seen from the following data (table. 1).

Table 1. Energy demand in infants and young children
Age Energy demand (kcal) Energy security through (%)
on 1 kg of weight per day proteins fats carbohydrates
0-3 months
4-6 months
7-12 months
1-3 years
120
120
115




1540
8
10
12
14
49
45
43
31
43
45
45
55

The main amount of energy a person receives at the expense of carbohydrates. The children of the first months of life cover their energy demands in the digestion of carbohydrates and fats milk. As the energy value of lipids in 2 times more than the energy value of carbohydrates, lipids share in meeting the energy needs of children of early age is quite significant. In process of growth the main source of energy in children become carbohydrates.
Very important is the issue of defining the needs of children of early age in the protein. Role of protein in the organism vital activity are extremely important. Whites are the main plastic material, and so the arrival of sufficient amounts of protein in the period of intense growth and development of children's organism during formation of its bodies and systems is particularly necessary. Proteins are used as energy and material. The splitting of 1 g of protein is allocated 4.0 kcal.
Long established fact that an insufficient supply of protein from food is violated its synthesis in the body and the deficiency of body weight and height. Especially sensitive to the lack of protein children of early age [Chistyakov Century I., 1967; Vasiliev L. P., Gurvich D. B., 1973]. A typical example of protein deficiency is a disease such as kwashiorkor, where it is lagging in growth, delay the formation of bone, the disruption of the liver, mental retardation, steady increase of malnutrition (underweight more than 20-25 %).