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  • Udivlenie loop
  • Udivlenie hands
  • Compression asphyxia
  • hanging
    Fig. 6. Hanging in the standing position

    Hanging - compression of the neck loop, tightened under the action of gravity of the whole body or its parts (Fig. 6). Hanging causes mechanical asphyxia and in most cases is done in a loop, which more or less tightly covers the neck. The character and features of a loop are important because of its material and other features depends on the severity of the signs hanging.
    Depending on the material distinguish hard (from a wire, cable, etc), semi-rigid (from ropes, cords, belts), soft (from linen, towels and others) loop.
    Loops can be moving (in the form of a ring, which can take a while) and stationary (circle length of their remains unchanged).
    Depending on the number of turns around the neck there are single, double, triple, multiple loops.
    Site loops in relation to the neck can be positioned either behind - the typical location of the loop, occurring most frequently, either on the front or sides of the neck - atypical location loops (Fig. 7). As a rule, the noose has slantwise-upward (toward the site of the loop), which reflects the peculiarities of the origin of death for the hanging.

    Fig. 7. The location of the loop: as is typical, b, C - atypical.

    The loop is material evidence and are important for the investigation. Therefore, it is important to keep it, if possible, in an unchanged form, especially the site of the loop.
    In Fig. 8 shows procedure when removing the hinge.

    Fig. 8. The technique of lifting loops.

    The causes of death for the hanging. In a typical situation node loop (back) she squeezes his neck in the field of the hyoid bone, pushing backwards and upwards the root of the tongue. Last pressed against the back of the throat and closes the lumen of the larynx.
    In side position of the loop the root of the tongue one's pressing away in the opposite location, fully closing the lumen of the larynx. And in fact, in both cases, the flow of air into the lungs stopped.
    At the position of the node loop under the chin respiratory tract is not fully overlap, but that doesn't prevent death.
    In the Genesis of death for the hanging, is critical compression of the neurovascular bundle neck. In case of compression of the carotid arteries are completely or largely ceased access arterial blood to the brain, which leads to acute hypoxia and beyond inhibition first of a bark of the big hemispheres, and then within the brain stem. At the same time due to the strangulation jugular veins with the continued flow in the brain blood in spine arteries is discontinued or significantly disrupted the outflow of venous blood from the cavity of the skull and brain, resulting in increased intracranial pressure. All this leads to very quickly (within the first minute from start hanging) loss of consciousness. This, in particular, due to the fact that almost samovydvizheniya excluded from the loop. Famous deaths from hanging the persons who had a tracheostomy (localization loop above tracheotomies holes).
    A certain value in the Genesis of death for the hanging has compression wandering, verhneportovaya nerves and area carotid sinus, particularly in patients with heart disease. In such cases, cardiac arrest can occur very quickly, and signs of acute onset of death will be poorly pronounced (spot-p. Tardieu, the stagnation in parenchymatous organs, and so on).
    Diagnosis of hanging. Usually when death by hanging signs, previously known as the common signs of asphyxia (acute death). However, crucial for the diagnosis of death from hangings have the characteristics specific to La this type of mechanical asphyxia. The main of them is strangulation furrow, which is a negative (mirror) trail loop on the neck, resulting from pressure on it loops (Fig. 9). It is clear that the terrain, the nature of the bottom, the width of grooves and its other features are largely determined by the material loop, the time of the corpse in the loop and the time elapsed from the moment of death to the examination of the body. The harder the loop and the more time spent on the corpse in the loop, the more depth strangulation furrows, intense color - from light-blue to dark-brown. A characteristic property strangulation furrows for the hanging is the inequality in its depth it is more expressed on the opposite site of the loop, as it is here on the neck is the greatest pressure.
    From soft loops depth of furrows minor and the furrow can be expressed very weak; from hard loops, on the contrary, furrow will be expressed much sharper, deeper and more clearly expressed its relief of the bottom.
    Strangulation furrow for the hanging located mostly in the upper neck and has, as a rule, slantwise-upward direction.
    In a typical arrangement loop strangulation front furrow is located in the upper part of the neck at the level of the thyroid cartilage or a little higher. More often strangulation furrow is open (to the site of the loop), sometimes - closed (with a stationary loop, densely covering the neck).

    Fig. 9. Strangulation furrows at the various types of loops.