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Depending on the number of orbits of the loop around the neck furrow can be either single or double, triple or multiple. If there is nadinochka furrow between her individual moves are vulnerable to the delicate skin in the form of narrow ridges or scallops. The bottom of the furrow it expressed weaker top.
Furrow width is usually corresponds to width of a loop. If in the study of furrow on it detects part of the material loop (fibre ropes and other), the so-called overlay, they should be described and seized with a special adhesive for further forensic examination.
All the features of the furrow should be carefully studied and described in the research part of the expert's conclusion.
Strangulation furrow is formed and when will be suspended already a corpse. Therefore, one of the most important issues of examination is the establishment of a lifetime of origin furrows and hangings.
About the lifetime of the furrow indicate bleeding in the skin on the periphery of the furrow in the regional and intermediate rollers (if furrow nadinochka), bleeding in the subcutaneous tissue and muscles of the neck on their course and in the places of attachment.
One of the signs pointing to prizhiznennoi strangulation furrows, is a pronounced difference in the blood vessels of microcirculation of fascia and muscles of the neck above and below strangulatio neck.
When the compression of the neck loop occurs razmytye subcutaneous fat and trauma of small vessels, which creates conditions for the emergence of fat embolism vessels of the lungs. Histological examination of regional lymph nodes and vessels of the lung tissue on fat (in the absence of other damage) may indicate a lifetime of education strangulation furrows.
When hanging sometimes there are fractures of the cartilages of the larynx and Rozhkov the hyoid bone. About the lifetime of these injuries will testify marked hemorrhage in the muscles around the fractures.
For the hanging, when the delay loop around the neck is jerky (for example, jump from his chair while hanging), can produce cross-intimal lacerations common carotid artery below the blending loop (sign Amuse). On prizhiznennoi education these tears will indicate bleeding in the intima of the arteries.
During the lifetime hanging there may also be bleeding under longitudinal ligament and in the intervertebral discs of the spine, as well as multiple hemorrhages in the internal organs.
If was dangling corpse, then these signs will not take place.
In some cases (with the breakaway hinges, early removing hanged from a loop others) people can remain alive, if hypoxia of the brain cortex has not exceeded 5-6 minutes
But in all these cases in the postasphyxial period develop disorders of the activities of the CNS varying degrees, as well as functional somatic disorders. Especially pronounced postasphyxial painful disorders, in cases when strangulate neck lasted for more than 3 minutes From undergoing asphyxia observed symptom complex disorders of the functions of the principal vital systems and organs: Central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory organs. Clinically it is manifested in the development of successive signs aspektidele coma (areflexia, muscle atony, a sharp oppression of stem functions, decerebration rigidity, pyramid hypertension, tonic and tonicclonic convulsions), period stun (spoor, drowsiness), period of disorientation and memory disorders (agitation, retro and anterograde amnesia).
It is established that at salvation extracted from the loop, great importance is the ratio between the duration of strangulatio time and later unconsciousness. If the consciousness at the lively no more than a day, the prognosis is generally unfavorable.
By the nature of death hanging is often suicide (campovalano), much less commonly, the murder and accident. In addition, the investigative practice, sometimes there are cases simulation hanging (when the offender is trying to extradite a murder for campovalano, hanging corpse).