Fragment damage by explosion

Damage by debris found in forensic practice in peacetime only rarely and is connected with the explosions of various shells, grenades, fuses. The invaders left in the occupied territories huge number of different ammunition, which still occasionally find after several years after the second world war. Chance find teenagers unexploded mines, old projectile grenades etc. is always fraught with tragic consequences.
Bombs (charges, packages and others) can be made and handicraft way with the aim of poaching, for example for fishing. As containers for explosives can be used bottles. The explosion of such a "charge" damaging factors, in addition to the energy of the explosion, are glass fragments (Fig. 71).


Fig. 71. Damaged in the explosion of an improvised explosive device.

The peculiarity of the explosion is that the explosive instantly from a liquid becomes a gas, at first occupying the same amount. Creating pressure of the order of hundreds of atmospheres, which, tearing the body of the vessel, containing the explosive, according to the kinetic energy of the fragments. Among the damaging effects of the explosion to be identified: a) a wave of explosive gases; b) high temperature explosive gases; C) pieces of a shell (shell); d) secondary shells.
Gases generated as a result of the explosion, simultaneous spread in all directions and transfer their energy to the environment in the form of a shock wave. Energy and destructive action of a shock wave depends on the power of the explosion.
Initial high-pressure explosion causes a high temperature gases formed. At explosion of conventional explosives (tolite, ammonal) temperature gas explosion reaches 3000-4000°N explosion in close proximity of the man, in spite of the short duration of exposure to high temperatures, possible zakapyvanii and opalanie clothing and hair. Under the influence of the energy of the explosion can happen divide the body into separate parts. The torn body of the projectile can affect the human body at varying distances depending on the power of the explosion and the size of the fragment. Shards of steel projectile flying at a distance greater than the size of a fragment of 8 thousand times, aluminum - 2.5 thousand times. Shrapnel wounds acquire star-shaped, oval or indeterminate form and in most cases are blind. The explosion destroyed nearby objects, parts and fragments of which, getting the speed transformed into secondary shells and can also affect a person's body. Outside steps fragments shock wave causing General contusion and at a pressure of 0.2 bar. and above leads to the rupture of the eardrum, closed injuries of internal organs (table. 9).

Table 9. Features of damage depending on the distance explosion
The distance from ground zero Damaging factor The nature of damage
Direct contact of a shell with the body or very close distance (within steps of explosive gases) Wave of explosive gases and pieces of explosive, shock wave, shell splinters or fuse, sometimes secondary shells Combined injury:
a) destruction and separation of parts of the body
b) opalanie and kopchenie
C) closed injuries (fractures, ruptures to internal organs)
d) multiple shrapnel wounds, sometimes secondary shells
Close (within the actions of a shock wave) The shock wave. Fragments of the projectile and secondary shells Combined injury:
a) mostly closed (fractures, ruptures to internal organs)
b) shrapnel wounds
Close (if there is collapsing obstacles) Collapsing barrier and its fragments A variety of damage from landslides and secondary shells
Long Fragments of the projectile Single or multiple shrapnel wounds (usually blind)

At explosion of vessels with liquid flammable substance (gas tank), cylinders with liquefied gas, steam boilers, etc. can also cause damage to the specified type.