Damage

Damage is a violation of anatomical or functional state of the body (tissue, body parts)caused local external influence - mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation. Mechanical P. divided into the open, accompanied by infringement of an integrity of integuments and education wounds (see the Wounds, wounds), and closed in which the integrity of the skin or mucous membrane is not disturbed. Temperature damage divided into frostbite (see) and burns (see). Chemical, electrical and radiation P. also called burns.
Corruption is a particular type of injury, so mechanical P. can be referred to as mechanical trauma, the term "traumatic P." as tautological should not be applied.
The identification and treatment of P. - one of the main tasks of medicine; P. locomotor system is the branch of surgery in traumatology.

Damage in forensic against. Almost P. usually understand mechanical damage, which are classified by origin and localization: from bruises and abrasions to the destruction of the authorities and the crushing of the body. Most damage occurs by a blunt or tubegranny objects (e.g. stone, nails, teeth and other). Blunt objects can cause bruises, characterized, in particular, the formation of bruises and abrasions. Forensic is the localization abrasions is that they indicate the place of application ruling power; their shape, size and relative positions help to set the instrument and mechanism of injury; changes in the process of healing bruises and color bruise allow approximately judge about the time of their occurrence. In some cases, for example when falling from a height, a mismatch between the outer and inner P. (minor exterior and extensive internal).
In forensic practice is of great importance to establish the corpse of lifetime damage. For differences of ante-mortem injuries account for local variations in the area of the P. and General reaction of the organism to it. For a lifetime of damage characteristic features of the external or internal bleeding, acute blood loss, embolism, reactive, inflammatory, degenerative and regenerative processes, traumatic, myoglobinuria. In abrasions lifetime of origin mark plethora of vessels, swelling of the dermis, leukocyte infiltration, and sometimes bleeding in the area of its location. Posthumous abrasion are usually evenly yellow and reinforced dermis.
Lifetime bruises macroscopically are characterized by swelling of tissues, bluish-purple color, traumatic jelly-like consistency swelling of subcutaneous fat in the context; bruises, which have certain limitations, are characterized by a change in the original colour; microscopic examination of them are marked with a plethora of vessels and thrombosis, tightly coiled blood in the tissues.
The wounds inflicted during life, gape, have traces and signs of external and internal bleeding. Often a clear distinction between in vivo and post-mortem injuries difficult. You can bruising from P. incurred in the first minutes after the time of death. However, they are usually very limited in area, located in the subcutaneous tissue, does not capture the entire thickness of the skin and after dissection of tissue is easily washed off with water. In doubtful cases a histological study. The material was taken on the border of the intact tissue.
Causes of death in damages different: 1) from the direct action of traumatic agent (the destruction of vital organs as the heart, brain and other, incompatible with life), disorders of vital systems due to shock or mechanical compression (for example, compression of the brain subdural hematoma, tamponada heart streamed blood, acute blood loss, mechanical suffocation - aspiration of blood and other traumatic shock, air and fat embolism); 2) from complications P. (again joined infectious diseases, peritonitis, meningitis and other); 3) late death from P. in the the emergence of pyo-septic processes, deep dystrophic changes of internal organs, depletion and other
In the study of non-fatal injuries have to define the character (bruises, fractures, and others), the time the injury, danger to life, during the healing process, outcome, the duration of temporary damage to health (long, short), to determine possible in a disability and its size.
During the medical examination of alive persons in connection with P. judge must determine the severity., In the criminal code of the RSFSR 1960 all injuries are divided into grave (article 108), a less serious (article 109) and light (article 112). Expert in determining the severity P. obliged to follow the guidance of these articles and the Rules for determining the severity of bodily injuries", approved by the Minister of health of the RSFSR on 4 April 1961 criminal code of the RSFSR and the "Rules", providing the severity of bodily P., mean danger for their lives and health from the effects P. (permanent disability varying degrees, long-term and short-term health disorder, termination of pregnancy, lasting disfigurement of the face). The code lists the signs of serious bodily injury, and lists P. dangerous for life. To the latter includes such Isthmus, which in the ordinary course end in death or create for the victim's death. If it is established that P. was dangerous to life at the time of application, it is estimated as grave whatever happens.
All the rest P. evaluated only on the outcome.
For less serious are damaged, not dangerous for life and did not cause consequences envisaged senior 108 of the criminal code of the RSFSR, but caused protracted health disorder (lasting more than 4 weeks) or to a significant permanent loss of work capacity less than on one third - from 15%to 33%). To the lungs include P., which caused short-term health disorder (duration not less than 7 days but not more than 4 weeks) or minor permanent loss of working capacity (less than 15%), and not causing these effects.
The expert conclusion on the degree of severity of the damages should be not only certain, but reasonable given qualifying features P.).
To define P. resort to additional research methods: histological, radiological, research in ultraviolet rays, photographing in infrared light, pin-diffusion method for the determination of metals, production of casts of the wound channels and bone anatomical preparations etc.
In some cases it is necessary forensic investigation of the damage service, allowing together with P. study on the body to fully solve the questions connected with the forensic expertise P. I. pieces of silver.