Bandages

Bandages impose for the treatment of wounds and their protection against external impacts, with the aim of immobilization (see), stop bleeding (compression bands), to fight the expansion of subcutaneous veins and venous the stasis , etc. there are bandages soft and hard, or fixed.
Soft swathe, casinofree, plastyrnyj, klyovye and other dressings impose to hold the dressing on the wound, as well as with other goals. The ways of imposing see Desmurgy.
Aseptic dry bandage consists of several layers sterile gauze covered a wider layer of absorbent cotton or lignin. Put it directly on the wound or over put her tampons or drainage with the purpose of draining wounds: the outflow of fluid (pus, lymph) in the bandage helps to dry out the surface layers of the wound. However, due to the removal from the wound microbes and toxins created conditions conducive to healing. Dry aseptic bandage protects the wound from the new infection. Continuous soaking bandage (as a whole or only the upper layers) must be changed; in some cases produce odbytova type wool and again bontout.
Antiseptic dry bandage on mapping method is no different from the dry aseptic, but is prepared from materials pre-impregnated with antiseptics (solution of sublimate, iodoform, etc. and then dried or powdered before applying bandages powder antiseptics (for example, streptocide). Use a dry antiseptic dressing mainly in the provision of first aid with the purpose of influence contained substances on the microbial flora of the wound. More often applied drying wet bandage from gauze impregnated with an antiseptic solution [0,02% solution furatsilina, 0,1-0,2% solution of etakrydina (of rivanol), a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide and other]. A solution of antiseptic means you can type in the dressing fractional syringe or continuous drip through a special drainage, the ends of which are derived through the blindfold.
Hypertensive drying wet dressing made from materials (swabs, gauze covering the wound), impregnated immediately before applying bandages 5-10% solution of sodium chloride, 10-25% solution of magnesium sulfate, 10-15% a solution of sugar and other substances. These dressings cause intensified outflow of lymph from tissues in the wound and dressing. The imposition of their shows when infected wounds with poor detachable, with wounds, containing many of the necrotic tissue.
Protective bandage consists of gauze, thickly smeared with sterile vaseline, vaseline oil, 0.5% of syntomycin emulsion or other oily substances. Is used to treat cleared necrotic tissue granulating wounds.
The compression bandage is used to temporarily stop bleeding (see). On top of tampons, entered into a wound, and gauze napkins put a tight ball of cotton wool and densely his bandage.
Occluzionna bandage is applied when you open the pneumothorax (see). Its main purpose is to prevent the inflow of air through the wound of the chest into the chest cavity. After a rich smearing vaseline skin around the wound on her impose a piece of torn rubber gloves, rubber sheet, or other impermeable to air fabric. The bandage should cover not only the wound, but the skin around it. On top of this fabric impose large quantity of cotton and tight bandage. When inhaling not breathable fabric clings to the wound and seals it. Perhaps the contraction of the wound edges with strips of adhesive tape with the imposition of gauze napkins, cotton and bandages on top.
Elastic bandage - see Varicose veins.
Zinc-gelatin dressing - see Desmurgy.
Fixed (immobilizers) bandages are imposed to limit movements and comfort of any part of the body. Shown with bruises, dislocations, fractures, injuries, inflammatory processes, tuberculosis of bones and joints. Fixed bandages are divided into the tyre (see Bus, splinting) and harden. The latter include the cast (see Plaster technique), and is rarely used nowadays starch bandage. For manufacturing stiffening bands, and may use other substances: syrupy solution of gelatin, sodium silicate (liquid acid sodium) and solution of celluloid in acetone. These slowly stiffening bandage applied (mainly the latter) for the production of corsets and tires cigarette-making machines, manufactured by a plaster model.
Starch bandage. Bandages from starch gauze after their immersion in boiling water and push-UPS impose on top of a cotton lining, often with cardboard tyres. Hardens such bandage during the day. Starch bandage can be imposed through a bandage each layer of grease starch glue. It is prepared by mixing starch with a little water to the consistency of thick cream and boiled in hot water while stirring.
Cm. also Oil and balsamic dressing.


Mechanical characteristics distinguish soft bandages used to treat wounds, hard, or stationary - for immobilization (see); elastic - to fight the expansion of subcutaneous veins and venous stasis; P. with the traction (see Traction). The most widely used soft P. for wounds and other defects of the skin (burns, frostbite, various sores etc). They protect the wound from bacterial contamination and other environmental effects, are used to stop bleeding, the effects on the microflora already present in the wound, on biophysical and chemical processes occurring in it. In the treatment of wounds applied, dry aseptic bandages, antiseptic (bactericidal), hypertensive, oil-balsamic, protective, hemostatic.
How to keep bandages on the wound - see Desmurgy.
Dry aseptic bandage consists of 2-3 layers sterile gauze (imposed directly on the wound or embedded in the wound swabs) and of the covering layers of sterile gauze absorbent cotton of different thickness (depending on number of discharge). By area, the bandage should cover the wound and surrounding skin on distance not less than 4-5 cm from the edge of the wound in any direction. A layer of cotton etc. have to be 2-3 cm wider and longer gauze. Hygroscopic cotton wool can be fully or partially (upper layers) to replace other sterile absorbent material (e.g., lignin). To increase strength P. and facilities of pribortovaya on top of it often place a layer of grey (negigroskopichnyh) wool. Operating sewn tightly wound aseptic P. impose one gauze 5-6 layers without wool. Dry aseptic of powazki to impose osushivaniya wounds. At wounds, healing primary intention, osushivaniya helps in the formation of a dry scab. When infected wounds with pus in bandages receives a large part of micro-organisms and toxic substances. In dry cotton-gauze P. imposed on fresh contaminated wound, goes about 50% contained therein radioactive isotopes (C. I. Ants). Dry P. protects the wound from pollution, while will not get wet. Soaked P. you must either immediately change or pedunculate, i.e., brushing wet plot bandages, tincture of iodine, to fix on top P. another layer of sterile material, better negigroskopichnyh.
Antiseptic (bactericidal) dry bandage on a design does not differ from dry aseptic, but is prepared from materials impregnated with antiseptic means, or is a dry aseptic P., gauze layer which is sprinkled with powdered antiseptic (for example, streptocide).
The application of dry P. from antiseptic dressing material is most justified in the military field conditions as they are, even after getting soaked with blood, continue to a certain extent to protect the wound from the invasion of microbes. Therefore, to manufacture individual compress bandages preferred antiseptic dressing material.
Wet drying antiseptic dressing consists of sterile gauze napkin moistened ex tempore antiseptic solution; they are put on the wound with a ball and cover from above with a dry aseptic P. the Latter immediately absorbs liquid from napkins and wet; to avoid getting wet linen and bed sick, P. usually cover the top layer of sterile negigroskopichnyh wool, not violating ventilation. If to cover damp P. airtight material (for example, an oilcloth), you get a warming wrap of antiseptic solution, which may cause dermatitis and even skin burns, and sometimes the necrotic tissue in the wound. Bactericidal P. one time almost totally obsolete and only with the advent of modern antiseptic funds began to be applied widely. Currently use a variety of chemical and biological protivomaljarijnye drugs introduced in P. ex tempore.
Hypertensive bandage creates a difference in osmotic pressure of tissue fluid and the fluid contained in the wound, and in Petrograd, and thereby causes enhanced flow of lymph from tissues into the cavity wounds. Dry hypertensive P. prepared from dry aseptic P., powdering 2-3 layers of gauze and the wound with powdered sugar. This kind P. rarely used, usually produce drying wet hypertensive P., which instead antiseptic solution permeate hypertension (5-10%) a solution of salt, usually sodium chloride. Could also be applied to the solution of magnesium sulfate, has analgesic properties. Are sometimes 10-15% a solution of sugar (beet), but hypertonic saline solution is more profitable, as it promotes favorable change elektrolitnogo balance fabrics, pH and other parameters, therefore, is a method of pathogenetic therapy wounds.
An even greater impact on the pathogenesis of wound process have oil and balsamic dressing (see).
Protective bandage is applied under granulating wounds. It protects delicate granulation tissue from drying and irritation fibers and loops Marley. This P. deprived suction capacity, but is used in the phase currents wounds when accumulating under P. pus is rich in antibodies and faguoqitirute cells and provides a good environment for young connective tissue.
Be expedient to apply vaseline protective P. (normal dry aseptic P., thickly smeared on the part of sterile gauze vaseline ointment). It is simple and effective. When protective P. usually excluded introduction to the wound drainage, tampons and high level of antiseptics. Ointment weak antiseptic action, not annoying granulation (for example, oil-balsamic ointment Century A. Vishnevsky, 0.5% of syntomycin ointment, etc.,) can be used for protective P., but significant advantages over pure vaseline not have. Protective bandage often placed on the long term in these cases should be covered her top layer negigroskopichnyh wool.
Occlusive (hermetic) armband necessarily applies to the outside open pneumothorax. The basis for it is a piece of tight fabric (rubber sheet, rubber, leukoplast), imposed directly on the wound and widely covering the skin around it. When inhaling oilcloth stick to the wound and reliably seals it. When exhaling the air from the pleural cavity freely out of Peterhof Complex occlusive P. fitted with a valve different designs, substantial benefits are not.
Fixed bandages are divided into the tyre (see Bus, splinting) and harden. The latter can be made using different substances. Gypsum P. - see Plaster technique.
Starch dressing made from starch bandage factory production with the length up to 4 meters Before bandaging bint immersed in boiling water. After a light squeeze bandages cool on the plates. Limb wrap a thin layer of grey wool and bontout warm starch bandage spiral (see Desmurgy). When proglazhivanie hand tours bandage stick together and aligned. Put three coats of starch bandage is placed longitudinally cardboard bus and fix them another 2 - 3 layers of starch bandage.
About a day P. hardens. The lack of starch P. and previous P. from liquid glass - slow hardening. Promising is the use of bandages soaked quickly hardened glue type BF-2.
Elastic and gelatin (zinc-gelatin) P. - see Varicose veins.
Radioactive dressing - see alpha therapy.