Practical training in the section "Health houses"

The definition length ratio. To determine the length ratio measure the glazed surface of all Windows in the room (without frames and covers and area Iola. Light coefficient (SC) expressed as a fraction or relationship (the numerator of the fraction, or the first member relationships, lead to unity).
Example. Glazed window surface 2.2 m2. In room 4 Windows. The total surface of the glazing: 2,2·4 = 8.8 m2. The floor space of 48 m2. Light ratio of 8.8/48 = 1 : 5,4
Determination of the coefficient of natural light (NLF). To determine the light currently in sanitation practices are applied an objective light meters. Objective light meter consists of a light-sensitive photocell (selenium) and connected switch galvanometer (Fig. 21).

Fig. 21. General view of the light meter:
1 - meter; 2 - photocell; 3 - portable meter.

In the fall of light rays in the solar cell occurs photoelectric current, which rejects the arrow galvanometer. The deflection angle of the arrow the more, the more intense lighting. Indications galvanometer corresponds to the value of Lux.
The device has two terminals: connect galvanometer when working in low light (up to 100 LK) and the big light (up to 1000 Lux). Accordingly, the galvanometer is a scale from 0 to 100 Lux or 0 to 1000 Lux. If the lighting is great and arrow galvanometer goes beyond the scale, the solar cell wear head with the optical filter, which weaken the luminous flux 10 m 100 times.
The use of filters allows you to extend the limits of measurement.
To determine the rate of natural light is measured by a meter illumination in the workplace and at the same time outside. Expressing this attitude in percentage, calculated KEO.
Example. The lighting in the workplace is 75 Luke, and in conditions of the open atmosphere - 3800 LK.
KEO = 75·100/3800 = 1 97%

The definition for multiplicity of air exchange. The ventilation rate is the number of times within an hour, completely replaced the air. If natural ventilation the ventilation rate can be defined indirect method. To do this, define the carbon dioxide content in the room, its size, and count the number of people present in the room, and by the formula calculates the number of air changes:

where S is the number of air changes; 22,6 - the amount of carbon dioxide in litres, exhaled adult person per hour; N - the number of people in the room; R - the concentration of carbon dioxide in the study room in ppm; 0,4 - average content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in ppm; - volume of the space in cubic metres.
Example. N= 12 people, K=250 m3, p = 1,48 % .

When there is artificial ventilation first of all, determine the amount of air entering the room. To do this, multiply the area of the ventilation holes on the speed of air flow in the cross section of the pipe. The air velocity is determined using an anemometer at several points of the cross section of the duct, and to calculate take the average speed. The ventilation rate in this case is determined by the formula:

where S is the number of air changes; V - the number of incoming air (or removed) from the premises; - the volume of the room.
Example. In the laboratory there is an intake fan, which is included in the break between classes. Cubature premises 592 m2. The vent is a square whose side is equal to 0.4 M. the area of the ventilation openings equal to 0.16 m2, as the area of a square is the square of the parties. The speed of air flow in ventilation hole is 6 m/S.
In the laboratory receives: 0,16·6 = 0,96 m3, and 10 minutes 0,96·600 = 576 m3 of air.
The ventilation rate in the laboratory within the specified time will be: 592 m3: 576= 1,02.

Sanitary inspection of the premises is conducted on the following map.
house no. ......................
apartment № ....................
The name of the tenant..................
2. In charge is: housing Department, building society, the institution .............
3. Floor . . . The number of living rooms in the apartment.....
of them focusing on the street. . . . in the yard .....
Darkening the neighbouring buildings - is, no.
4. Total area of the apartment . . m2, the total cubic capacity . . m3.
5. The number of families living in the apartment........
Only man .... of them children under 14 years ......
6. Living space per person . . . m2. Air cube per person......m3.
7. Brick walls, wooden. Interior design and the state of her. Dampness is, no, its causes.............
8. Central heating, furnace. Working - Yes, no; sufficient - Yes, no. The air temperature in the living room at the time of the survey ....................
9. Ventilation: Central - Yes, no; Yes, no. Vents are not. Through ventilation perhaps not; applied - Yes, no.
10. Kitchen: natural light is sufficient, no. Cooker gas (number of burners), wood. The grille is, no;
the thrust is, no. The condition of the walls and floor...........
Where are wood, garbage..........Sanitary condition......................
13. The noise in the apartment there, no. Its origin.....
14. Smells damp in the living room - Yes, no; the causes .......................
15. Complaints of residents ................