Legal issues

Young specialists graduating from medical school with a separation from manufacture, in accordance with the plan of allocation provided with work in the specialty in medical-preventive and sanitary-epidemiological institutions.
Provision of young specialists routinely one of the guarantees of ensuring the right of citizens of the USSR to work, established by the Constitution of the USSR. The direction of young specialists to the work performed by the Commission on personal distribution of young specialists, created at the educational institution. The issue of granting work is decided by the Commission taking into account the degree of training, health and family status graduating from an educational institution. Young professionals with a disability group I or II, are sent to work taking into account the state of health at the place of residence of their families or, with their consent, in one of the locations proposed by the Commission. Young specialists having parents of disabled of I or II groups, in the absence of the other able-bodied family members work is available upon request at the place of permanent residence of the parents. The wives (husbands) of servicemen of officers and sergeants and master sergeants extended service provided with work at the place of permanent serve their husbands (wives). For spouses of servicemen and cadets of military schools effect of this rule is not applicable.
Young professional women in case of pregnancy or in the presence of a child aged under 1 year of work is available at the place of permanent residence of the family (husband, parents). Spouses graduating from an educational institution at the same time, work is provided in institutions located in the same city or region. If one of the spouses graduated educational institution previously, he is working on a common basis, if later, at the place of destination of the spouse.
When joining the young professionals in marriage after the end of work of the Commission on the distribution of place of work of the spouses is determined by agreement between the ministries and other institutions, and in case of disagreement by the Ministry, in charge of the educational institution on the basis of tasks most appropriate use of young specialists. If the Commission on personal distribution in the above cases will not be able to provide the work of a young specialist in accordance with the plan, it shall submit a young specialist to work at his discretion or upon request provides the ability to work independently.
Heads of secondary special educational institutions are obliged to provide young specialists, who have the ability to self-employment, assistance to find work in the specialty.
The certificate of assignment to work and funding for travel to the destination must be given to young specialists the head of the institution simultaneously with the diploma.
Personal responsibility for timely certificates, cash and diplomas are the heads of educational institutions.
Managers of health care institutions is prohibited to employ young specialists within 3 years after the end of their educational institutions without certificates (vouchers) relevant Ministry (region) or certificate of granting the opportunity to get a job. The heads of higher educational institutions can not accept young specialists graduated from secondary medical educational institution for continuing education with a separation from manufacture earlier than 3 years after the end of their medical schools. The right of admission in medical institutions without compulsory work in medical institutions, institutes, clinics and institutions of sanitary-epidemiological service is available to graduates of medical schools included pedagogical Council in account 10% of the issue day division from among persons who received excellent and good marks in all subjects and pass state examinations with the same estimates. Other young professionals, graduates, required not less than 3 years to work directly in medical or sanitary-and-epidemiologic institutions, in accordance with the direction of the Ministry or of the regional health Department. During this period, the heads of the institutions do not move them to work not related to the profession and to dismiss young specialists without the permission of the regional health Department.
The face that permit the hiring of young specialists without certificates (vouchers) on a direction for work or certificate of permission self-employment or permit reception in higher educational institutions without working, are subject to criminal or disciplinary responsibility in accordance with the applicable legal provisions.
Young professionals provides living area of the institution to which they are directed at distribution. In the absence of departmental living space they provide a living area of local Councils of deputies at the request of bodies and establishments of public health.
All young specialists, on secondment, available on graduation month vacation regardless of when they were last holidays in educational institutions. During that vacation, young specialist-the scholarship is paid in the amount of the monthly scholarship at the expense of the institution in which he is sent to work. Salary for leave time is not paid.
Young specialists, who received an opportunity to get a job for benefits during the leave is not paid. Young specialists assigned to work in another locality, paid the fare of himself and of his family, the cost of transporting belongings, per diem during the time spent in transit, a one-time allowance in the amount of fortnightly salary in their new job and grant for each relocating family member at 1/4 benefits of a young specialist. These funds are paid educational institution at the expense of the institution in which he is sent to work.
When hiring nurses, not related to young professionals should observe the following rules. The position nurses should be persons who have completed medical school and courses of the red cross with a two-year term of training. Graduates from these courses in the presence of a two-year continuous experience of work as nurses are equal to nurses who have completed secondary education. Courses nurses of the red cross with a one-year term of training with a separation from manufacture in the presence of five-year work experience as a nurse also given the right to equating to nurses who have completed secondary medical education.
The party and government to constantly care for health workers. Wages of their equal to the salaries of technicians and engineers working in industry. In our country for medical workers has shortened working day. So, for example, those working in hospitals, maternity homes, hospitals and other stationary medical institutions, outpatient clinics, medical, medical, obstetric and General nursing and specialized classrooms, offices and units in children's institutions, medical, sanitary-epidemiological profile of the working day has 6 h 30 min


Doctors and nursing staff working during the whole working day on medical and other generators ultrashortwave frequency (UCWC), as well as in x-ray departments, the working day is set at 5-5,5 H. the Average medical workers, like all workers of our country, agree to the USSR Constitution, have the right to use the next release. The right to annual leave is available after 11 months of uninterrupted work at the enterprise or establishment.
Next holiday to adult workers is provided in all cases to 12 working days * adding weekend, coinciding with the holiday time. Employees with non-standardized workdays may be granted as compensation for the load and work outside school hours, additional leave. His term in state institutions and enterprises may not exceed 12 working days.
Underage workers, who by the time of leave under 18 years of age, annual leave is granted in the amount of 1 calendar month (for example, from 5 June to 4 July), but not less than 24 working days.
Health professionals medical and sanitary-epidemiological institutions serving workers and employees of the timber industry enterprises has additional leave in 12 working days.
Persons working in the Far North, are granted additional leave of 18 working days, in the localities equated with the Far North,- 12 working days. Additional vacation also use health workers in certain specialized agencies - infectious, anti-tuberculosis, neuro-psychiatric etc.
Health workers living in rural areas and working settlements, have some benefits. Free-of-charge housing, fuel and electricity. In addition, according to article 16 of the Law On agricultural tax", adopted by the Supreme Council of the USSR on August 8, 1953, from tax exempt doctors, nurses and state sanitary inspector, who have special education and work in speciality in enterprises, institutions and organizations located in rural areas.
One of the main conditions of improving the quality of health services - systematic training of health care workers.
In recent years, local health authorities use a variety of organizational forms of advanced training of medical workers, which can be divided into three groups: the improvement of full-time tuition (full-time), without separation from work (part-time) and part-time.
Important improvement of medical personnel in schools of excellence, at workplaces, at short-term courses on studying of specific methods of diagnosis and treatment and at various seminars and conferences, the so-called site courses, meetings etc., of the School of advanced experience acquired great importance in increasing the qualifications of medical personnel. Usually this "school" is a facility that has achieved good results and whose experience can be useful for other institutions of the same type. The main form of learning best practices - demonstration implemented methods work directly in the hospital, clinic, health center, etc., and not during class sessions, as sometimes.
Health authorities practiced improvement of nurses in the workplace. For the development of new working methods, some nurses are sent to various medical facilities.
In addition to various short-term courses have proved ongoing courses of specialization and advanced training of nurses in isolation and without discontinuing work. They are organized in many areas of the country.
Improvement and specialization of secondary medical personnel at the courses is made in cycles: a paramedic independent points, feldshers (nurses) health stations at industrial enterprises, medical assistant sea and river vessels, midwives obstetric facilities, visiting nurses antenatal clinics, nurses socio-legal offices, ward and senior nurses therapeutic wards, polyclinics and health parts of the industrial enterprises, operating and senior nurses, nurse on plaster technique, blood transfusion, in anesthesiology, medical sisters narkotizatsii, nurses medical radiology, medical nurses by climatic recovery and balneotherapy, medical nutrition, nurses electrocardiographic rooms, massage, physiotherapy, medical nurses and medical assistants in physical therapy, functional diagnostics, patronage TB patients, nurses dermato-venereal institutions, sisters neurological departments, trachoma, ward nurses surgical departments, nurses chambers and offices neonatal nurses of children's hospitals and offices, nurses dairy kitchens and so on
The courses of specialization and advanced training only persons with secondary medical education. Finished courses are given special certificates of the established sample.
Full-time improvement is a highly effective form of training of medical personnel, which, however, has its drawbacks: the break from work for the period of training and the absence, as a rule, the preliminary self-preparation of medical worker on the topic. Characteristic feature of the internally-correspondence form of training of health personnel is a combination of independent study of the theoretical part of the training program without discontinuing work with the subsequent short-term departure in basic medical institution to consolidate the theoretical knowledge to practical training - directly at the bedside. This gives the opportunity not to tear nurses for a long time from their main job and significantly increases throughput base of medical institutions. Experience in medical institutions of many areas confirms the feasibility of organizing such forms of improvement.
Improving knowledge of nurses important role is played by scientific conferences, at which nurses make reports on topical issues. Usually such conferences are organized by Council of nurses medical institutions with the help of doctors.
The main significance in enhancing the knowledge of nurses attached to a permanent, continuous expansion of their horizons under medical management, as well as independent work on literary sources, especially through regular reading of magazines "Feldsher and midwife and nurse"and "Medical newspaper".

* Reference on working hours and holidays with health workers. M., Medgiz, 1963, S. 4-5.