In our time - in the age of rapid progress of science - medicine developed and improved not less quickly than other areas of human knowledge. However, sometimes, perhaps, these achievements are not as prominent as the achievements of other Sciences. But we should not forget that medicine is studying and heals the human body, the complexity of which is immeasurably higher than that of all machines and mechanisms in the world.
In our country completely eliminated the most dangerous infectious diseases that previously claimed thousands of lives, plague, cholera, smallpox, parasitic tifa. Almost completely destroyed malaria - but still twenty-thirty years ago, malaria was ill many hundreds of thousands of people. Close to the complete elimination of diphtheria. Nowadays almost no human deaths from pneumonia, appendicitis, dysentery, tuberculosis meningitis and many other diseases. Many times decreased mortality from tuberculosis.
Behind these numbers of medical statistics are remarkable evidence of a significant strengthening and improving the health of our population. During the years of Soviet power was significantly reduced morbidity. Overall mortality among the population fell by more than 4 times. Almost 7 times decreased child mortality. Life expectancy has increased more than in 2 times. Now she is 67 years, while in pre-revolutionary Russia it was just 32 years.
What caused these real and outstanding achievements? First of all - our Soviet system, our socialist society, where he destroyed the exploitation of man by man, where is steadily increasing material and cultural standard of living of the people.
During the years of Soviet power in our country has a broad network of medical institutions that provide the entire population of free qualified medical care.
No country in the world is there such a high rate of provision of population with doctors, as in the Soviet Union. Protect the health of the nation is an army of medical workers - about 380 thousand doctors and 1 300 thousand medical assistants and nurses.
Nearly one-third of physicians of all countries of the world and more than half of all doctors of Europe accounted for our country. Only one year of higher medical educational institutions of the Soviet Union produced a large number of doctors, how many were there in all of Russia in 1913.
A very important role in the development of Soviet health is our growing medical and pharmaceutical industry. From year to year increases the production of new effective drugs, medical devices, apparatus and instruments. Only for the last seven years, the issue of medical equipment has increased more than 3 times, and on a new seven-year plan, he will grow by a further 3.5 times.
Over 15 years ago in our country was established by the governing centre - "General staff" scientific medicine Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR. In many institutes of the Academy, in its clinics and laboratories equipped with the best, most modern equipment, work not only outstanding scientists widely recognized both in our country and abroad, but also a large group of able and growing young scientists.
Over what are now our scientists? When we talk about the achievements of modern medicine, in particular about the progress of medical science, we always remember about that. what a large number of yet unresolved problems facing us. We know little of our most powerful and dangerous enemies - undefeated diseases that still resist the powerful offensive of our science. And while the list of these diseases every year is getting shorter, it is still quite high. In this list the first place our most dangerous adversaries cancer and other malignant tumors, diseases of cardiovascular system, infectious diseases. Therefore, a surgeon at the operating table, and microbiologist, bent over a microscope, and physiologist, whose experience on the dog, and pharmacologist, studying new medicine, and thousands of other scientists, they all ultimately lead continuous and persistent struggle against these enemies of humanity.
In its judgment of January 20, 1960 "On measures on further improvement of the service and protection of public health of the USSR" of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers obliged the medical authorities to implement measures that ensure elimination of diphtheria, anthrax, tularemia, polio and other diseases having a local distribution, as well as dramatically reducing the incidence of typhoid fever, whooping cough, ascariasis, acute intestinal infections and brucellosis. The party and the Government encourage health workers to focus on the following main health problems: a survey of methods and tools for effective treatment and prevention of influenza, angina, measles and other diseases, development of measures to further decrease child mortality.
Recently adopted a resolution on expanding the network of sanatoriums, rest homes, boarding houses and summer resort towns, and also to lower retail prices for medicines.
The authors of this book are our leading scientists; each of them is an expert in their field of medical science. Suffice it to say that more than half of this book is full members and corresponding members of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR.
Medicine is extremely vast and diverse area of human knowledge, including dozens of other, more private, but quite independent of Sciences. It is therefore quite natural that this book can not and does not aim to cover all branches of medicine. But we believe that it covers many very important, very interesting problems of our science, the problems that we usually call "key".
This gives us grounds to hope that the stories medical scientists about their work, about their successes, difficulties and prospects will be with interest and attention met by our readers.