Subject and objectives of hygiene

Hygiene is included in the complex of medical Sciences. It aims at disease prevention, not treatment of a patient, so the focus in occupational health is a healthy person. This is one of the differences of hygiene from curative medicine. If the objective of therapeutic medicine is to help the individual, hygiene develops activities related to large collectives United by common conditions of work and life. Therefore, the second difference between the treatment medicine and hygiene is that in the field of view of hygiene science is not one man, but the staff.
All clinical and theoretical medical Sciences study the structure of the body, most complex processes taking place in it as in normal and pathological conditions. Hygiene uses clinical data on the structure of the body and its functions. Its goal is investigation of influence on the human body in the external environment, including social. The purpose of this study is to develop science-based measures for elimination (if possible) or to reduce the influence of negative factors and strengthening positively affecting factors of the external environment.
Under the external environment is a set of household and production factors, which is determined in turn natural and social conditions (by definition F. G. Krotkova). The external factors include air, food, water, soil, etc.
The issue of the relationship of man with the environment differently interpreted by supporters of idealism and dialectical materialism. Idealists believe that the development of the organism is determined by the internal, non-material reasons, and do the wrong conclusion about impossibility to prevent disease recreational activities. Dialectical materialism is considering the body and the external environment as an inseparable whole. I. P. Pavlov wrote that this unity is possible only when establishing permanent and temporary relations with the environment, carried out at the person and animals by means of reflexes (absolute and conditional).
The body's ability to adapt to the environment can be enhanced by training, hardening (such as the adaptation of astronauts to the state of weightlessness). However, adaptation (adaptation) has defined borders. Therefore the task of hygiene is mainly changing the environment in accordance with the needs of the human body (the improvement of labor conditions, power supply, improvement of housing, and so on)
Summarizing all said above, we can give a definition of hygiene science and formulate its objectives.
Hygiene and preventive science that studies the influence of external factors (chemical, physical, social and others) on the health status of the population and developing on the basis of the obtained data standards and measures for the elimination or mitigation of harmful factors, as well as improvement of working conditions, life and health promotion.
Hygiene should be distinguished from the sanitation, implementing in practice the application of scientific achievements of hygiene science. However, between hygiene and sanitation there is a close connection. The hygienist must be able to carry out sanitary activities, and sanitary worker their activities often contributes to the development of hygienic science.
The main institution that organizes and carries all sanitary and anti-epidemic work in communities is a sanitary-epidemiological station. Sanitary-epidemiological stations conduct its work in combination with the medical and preventive institutions. So, organization of periodic medical examinations are conducted jointly with the medical-sanitary parts, clinics and health centers, industrial enterprises, organization of preventive vaccination of children - with pediatricians and other
The peculiarity of the Soviet health is in relationship to treatment and preventive medicine. It is very important to prevent occurrence of the disease, since the disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Successful diagnosis and treatment of many diseases is possible only in case, if the doctor is familiar with the main provisions of hygiene and learn, in the words of the Faberge company of Erisman, "hygienic way of thinking". For example, the doctor may be in difficulty if at the analysis of this study the blood he will not take into account peculiarities of professional medical history of the patient.
Health Soviet people is one of the most important tasks of the Communist party and the Soviet government. "The socialist state is the only state which takes charge of the protection and continuous improvement of the health of the whole population" *.
In the steady improvement of the material and cultural standard of living of the people, a broad preventive measures, the provision of free qualified medical care, the successful development of medical science in our country is systematically reduced mortality, increasing life expectancy. The mortality rate in 1970 was 8.2 per 1,000 population (the lowest in the world). The average life expectancy in 1966-1967, 70 years (before the revolution - 32 years), including for men - 66 years, for women - 74 years.
The natural increase of the population in 1970 amounted to 9.2 per 1000 inhabitants, which exceeds similar indicators of the capitalist countries **.

* The program of the Communist party of the Soviet Union. In the book: The materials of the XXII Congress of the CPSU. M., 1961, Gospolitizdat, S. 392.
** The economy of the USSR in 1970, M, "Statistics", 1968.

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