Preoperative period

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Preoperative period is the time required to prepare the patient for surgery. The duration of preoperative period depending on the degree of urgency of the operation, the patient's age and the severity of the upcoming surgery. Only emergency, emergency operations for health reasons (serious injury, injury to large vessels, acute appendicitis, strangulated hernia, ectopic pregnancy, ruptured stomach ulcer, acute intestinal obstruction and others)will be accepted with a minimum of preparation (from minutes up to 1-2 hours), as the delay in operation in such cases threatens the life of the patient.
In patients with acute appendicitis, strangulated hernia, for ectopic pregnancy after examination and consent to the operation preoperative preparation limited by the introduction of morphine and heart drugs; patients with severe head injury, a wound of large vessels conduct protivosokovu therapy; if intestinal obstruction before surgery pour in saline solution, 5% glucose solution; patients with perforation abdominal injected the serum, plasma or protein of the blood substitutes. Before the operations performed under General anesthesia, often requires emptying of the stomach probe, and the acute intestinal obstruction - and also siphon enema.
When the so-called regular (non-urgent) operations the main task of the preoperative period is maximum risk reduction forthcoming operation. With this purpose is the system of measures aimed at prevention of complications during and after surgery and. Activities in the preoperative period start with a detailed study of the disordered body functions for the purpose of normalization; conduct a comprehensive examination of the patient with use of modern diagnostic techniques to assess the General condition of the body and functions of separate organs and systems. The heavier the disease, the more complex the forthcoming operation, the more time is required to determine the patient endurance and the state of its vital organs. Survey data provide the basis for the purpose of preoperative treatment measures, as well as for decision surgeon about the plan of the operation and especially on the choice of the method of anesthesia.
Preoperative period when non-urgent operations (appendectomy in "cold" period, graineterie and others) usually takes 2-3 days. To prepare the patient for pulmonectomy about suppurative process easy with symptoms of severe intoxication or sick with exhaustion in cancer of the esophagus, lung and other required from 10 to 30 days.
Preparation for surgery is done individually and includes a number of activities General and special: total - required for each operation; special is required only when preparing to specific transactions. General measures are aimed at improving the neuro-somatic state of the patient, improve immune forces of organism, to hold the fight with secondary anemia, dehydration, intoxication, declining food, etc. the Number of patients with special training for the operation takes place in specialized departments (clinics, hospitals): patients with thyrotoxicosis - in endocrinology departments, with congenital and acquired heart defects in cardiological clinics, patients with diabetes, lung diseases - in relevant departments and so on Joint work of a surgeon with the specialists of related disciplines improves the quality of diagnostics and preparation of patients for surgery.
The study of the patient and the preparation of its operations are also of particular organs and systems.