Presbyacusis (presbyacusis; from the Greek. presbys - old man and akousis - ear) - senile deafness, senile deafness, the disease is mainly sound perceiving apparatus arising as a manifestation of the overall process of aging of the organism.
Pathological changes in presbyacusis are mainly in slow-developing degenerative-atrophic process in the hearing organ atrophy kortieva body, degeneration of spiral ganglion, engine and auditory nerve fibers). There is also a hardening of the mucous membrane of the middle ear.
In the pathogenesis of presbyacusis, in addition to the wear rate of neural elements auditory analyzer, are of great importance arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Some authors see the reason for presbyacusis in the metabolism and hypercholesterolemia.
Symptoms. When otoscopy in the lower half of the eardrum can be seen gray-white ring Crescent-shaped (arcus lipoides), usually combined with arcus lipoides corneae. Functional survey reveals poor hearing on high tone, lowering the upper boundary of the hearing, as well as shortening bone conduction. Due to the defeat of spiral ganglion and centers deteriorating speech hearing. Slow hearing loss and the gradual development of cortical hearing loss testify arteriosclerotic the origin of deafness. By N. A. Vasiliev, there is a dissociation between the degree of reduction in pure tone and whispering. Typical for presbycusis is relatively good perception of the middle sounds and reduction for low and high tones and good perception through a bone.
The treatment should be aimed against arteriosclerosis and hypertension and on maintenance of forces of an aging organism (mode, salt-free diet to improve water exchange). As tonics shown nicotinic acid, strychnine, vitamin B1 and hormonal drugs. Cm. also Deafness, Hearing loss.