The prestige of the nephron

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As balanced system driven antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone: one shoulder of the arm up and the other on the same down. For productivity growth, if any technological node has achieved the highest level, and constants homeostasis is not yet the norm, nephron has spare mechanisms. According to this principle required the concentration in the loop of Henle supports the absorption of water at the outlet of the nephron, and the reabsorption of bicarbonate - pumping into the mainstream tubules of the hydrogen ion, education ammonia. You get in trouble - acidification of the blood, and the nephron will throw to help sodium potassium from the body's own cells. If this is not enough, will condemn suicide those cations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, which fully shore for systematic work. They are directly connected with acid anions and together with them in the form of salts removed from the body.
At the most extreme case of the nephron in reserve another defense mechanism. Cells canaliculi themselves begin to throw in his direction unwanted body substances. So, experiments with animals load urea revealed that in peak situations it is displayed in 2 - 3 times more than it provides bandwidth clubockova filter. Such over-fulfillment has been observed in relation to creatinine is as toxic as urea, product of protein metabolism. This mechanism is an emergency, it requires nephron beyond voltage.
The kidney characterized and sacrifice. In catastrophic cases when the amount circulating in the body the blood falls by half, the blood flow to the kidney is reduced even more - up to 10-5 per cent. Why? For the sake of maintaining at a minimum acceptable level blood supply to the brain, heart, kidney waives its share of blood.
In the daily work of the nephrons demonstrate overwhelming willingness to respond to the immediate needs of the body, have shown tremendous adaptability. During the day, they take 30-35 grams of metabolism products. Spend an average of 1.5 liters of fluid and can do 500 milliliters. Each kidney is about a million nephrons. At the same time do not function in all. One-fifth, or even half on standby waiting for command "On your marks".
None of the nephron is not formed again, but everyone can expand. Thanks to such compensation healthy kidney is able to almost fully compensate the loss of a second. If one is removed, then in the second hour brings filtering in their glomeruli nearly 80 percent of that amount that was when I worked both kidneys.
The nephrons - is not alone. They are United in the group of the pyramid and all together make parenchyma - functioning kidney tissue. And the skeleton of her connective tissue, it - support vessels and nerves. In the pyramids of the nephrons keep order. Outward facing the glomeruli is the cortical layer, go inside the bone marrow layer. All tubules - neighbors in the pyramid of - mouth are located nearby, on its top. And all of a pyramid on its peaks overturned in small renal calyx. Here comes products nephrons.
Small cups merge into larger. They are usually three or two. They fall into the pelvis. This is the tank, though tiny, average capacity of pelvis - 5 ounces. From it to the bladder does the urethra - the tube inside diameter of 4-5 mm.
Calyx, pelvis and ureter is constructed of three layers. Between the thin outer connective tissue and internal mucous membranes are impressive, intertwining muscle fibers. They constantly rhythmically and simultaneously reduced, if a wave rolls from small cups to the bladder. So transported urine.