First aid for injuries and bleeding

The wound is damage to tissues of the body in which necessarily violated the integrity of integuments or mucous shells. In the centers of mass destruction and disasters, injuries often cause the shards of glass and pieces of various objects in the result of the shock wave and the destruction of buildings or buildings.
Injury can cause life-threatening bleeding, and the introduction of microbes into the wound, causing her suppuration, also dangerous for the life of the victim. Severe wounds, bleeding, broken bones and burns can lead to shock and to endanger the victim's life.
Bleeding may be blood (if the damage of the arteries), venous (if damage to the veins) and capillary (if damaged capillaries). The most dangerous arterial bleeding in which a jet of blood is bright red expires from the wound under pressure, as if the earthquake.
In addition, there are internal bleeding, the blood poured out in the internal cavities of the body (the cavity of the chest, abdomen, skull), and outside in the pouring out of the blood through the wound out.


Fig. 1. Places of possible pressure arteries subject to the bones.

Fig. 2. Ways finger pressing arteries subject to the bones.

What to do for external bleeding. Capillary bleeding to stop easy enough to put on the wound pressure bandage. Before that, the skin around the wound grease with iodine than destroy skin microbes, then placing a cloth (preferably sterile, i.e. decontaminated) of several layers of gauze or any other pure cotton fabric and tight bontout. If the bandage becomes wet, top impose another napkin and bandage. Usually quite such a pressure bandage and venous bleeding; limb should be given an exalted position.
Arterial bleeding, damaged large arteries need to act quickly. Knowing the places of possible pressure arteries to be bones (Fig. 1), you must first stop the bleeding. The vessel press, strongly squeezing fingers, as shown in Fig. 2. For bleeding on the limbs best to impose the standard cloth or a rubber tourniquet or spin from local funds, belt, a piece of cloth and so on (Fig. 3).

the sequence blending rubber strap in pictures
Fig. 4. The sequence blending rubber strap.
rubber tourniquet
Fig. 3. Rubber tourniquet.
stop arterial bleeding spin in pictures
Fig. 5. Stop arterial bleeding spin:
and of initiating node; b - twisting with sticks; in - consolidation sticks.

Harness or spin placed firmly, pull the limb and compress wall bleeding artery. Methods and techniques of the tourniquet is applied or twist shown in Fig. 4 and 5.
If a tourniquet or twist should be guided by the following rules:
under harness (spin) on the skin, put a cloth, composed of several layers, so as not to infringe the folds of the skin;
- tighten the harness need to pulse disappears and stop bleeding should not be used harness too tight as possible necrosis;
under harness (spin) be sure to enclose a note indicating the exact time of its imposition in a 24-hour basis (02 : 25). It do that on a medical aid station, where arrives the victim, it was known, when burned, is imposed to avoid ossification tissue.
Harness or spin can hold no more than 1 - 2 hours, If withdrawal bleeding continues, harness weaken for a few minutes and re-tighten, at the same time pushing a finger bleeding vessel.


Fig. 6. Stop bleeding by maximum bending legs.

In addition to harness, to stop the bleeding on a limb can, bending it in the following way (Fig. 6). To do this from a gauze or other soft material do cushion and placed it under the seat fold (in the popliteal fossa, axilla, elbow), simultaneously with the effort bend limb and fix it in place with a bandage.
Internal bleeding to stop in order of self-help and mutual aid is practically impossible. For obvious internal bleeding or suspected victim should provide full rest and to the intended bleeding (stomach, head and breast) to attach the rubber bladder or plastic bag with snow or ice (flask or bottle with cold water). Such a victim carefully, on stretchers, urgently transported to a medical center.