The tides

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 What are the main condition for achieving the goal? 
 The existence of obstacles. 
 I. P. Pavlov

The beginning of immunology was initiated by the works of L. Pasteur, and I. I. Mechnikov. A hundred years ago emerged scientific discipline immediately made an invaluable contribution in practical medicine: with its help the doctors were able to prevent and treat many infectious diseases. It took another fifty years, and a new, already noninfectious immunology created real prerequisites for another breakthrough in clinical practice, this time in surgery (organ transplantation). A dozen or so years immunological approaches success in obstetrics was developed prevention of complications in RH conflict pregnancies and suggested tactics prevention of spontaneous abortion. On the agenda were put forward problems of treatment of the disease, the origin of which until recently doctors were not even aware.
However, not always immunological attack was ended unconditional success. There is medicine to storm which immunology not once was prepared, but was not fully prepared. In these cases, relationship problems with immunological its decisions was sometimes on the principle of the old children's game of "hot-cold". The same refers to the Oncology.
In 1888 Russian microbiologist, associate of I. I. Mechnikov N. F. gamaleja noted that the action of bacteria of prodigious cancer causes its resorption. Soon, however, the scholar's interests shifted to vaccination, gamaleja went to Paris to Pasteur, and experiments on the effects of dead bacteria on tumor remained unfinished.
In the 1890s, American physician William Cooley drew attention to the fact that a cancer patient's condition started to improve after acute streptococcal the infection. Cooley was to treat their patients something of a vaccine prepared from Streptococcus and other bacteria. Although the author has reported several cases amazing healing, treatment not later received support due to the success of radiation therapy.
Methods of treatment of X-rays and later are chemically synthesized drugs (chemotherapy) permanently weakened the interest of oncologists to methods of stimulation of protective forces of the organism. X-rays, gamma rays , radioactive substances and energy accelerators of charged particles, interstitial and metabolic radiation therapy, antimitoticescoe effect of chemotherapy and comprehensive violation of biosynthesis of nucleic acids in tumor cells... Until 1900 oncologists almost not observed cases of persistent treatment of malignant tumors, but in subsequent decades, the percentage of recovered, radically cured of cancer patients started to increase. They were not as many as you'd like, but believe that these therapeutic techniques will increasingly radical.
Among the scientists became the traditional view that the tumor growing from their own cells, there can be immunogenic for the body cannot contain a new protein antigens. Gone unnoticed conclusions E. Foley, who 50 years have shown that caused by carcinogens in the experiment sarcoma creates the animals improved immunological response to such cells: if the primary sarcoma delete, then re-invoke it already failed. Yes, immunity in animals to transplantable tumors sometimes, but spontaneous "natural" tumors, especially in humans, is another matter, immunity is not to blame. So thought the absolute majority of oncologists.
Since 1963, the French researcher J. mate started the experiments on active immunotherapy of cancer, partially returning to the old idea to use as a weapon against tumors bacterial products. In malignant lesions of blood cells (leukemia), he introduced the suspension of tubercle bacilli (commonly known BCG vaccine) or killed tumor cells. Treatment in some cases proved to be successful, often in the early stages of the disease. Mate suggested that immunotherapy may be useful when there is insignificant (less than 106) the number of tumor cells in the body. And to reduce the number of such cells are capable of chemotherapy and radiation treatment.