Professional diseases

Occupational diseases are diseases that occur when the effects on the body adverse occupational factors. It is non-specific, but the characteristic clinical syndromes and disease forms, the emergence and development of which etiological associated with exposure to certain conditions, or diseases that occur when working with these factors naturally more often, than in other conditions.
Classification of occupational diseases from exposure to chemical substances (lead, mercury, manganese, benzene and other), industrial dust (silicon, coal and others), various physical factors of production environment (noise, vibration, ionizing radiation and others), unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and others), changes of atmospheric pressure (low or high pressure), physical overvoltage and trauma. Professional diseases can be certain infectious and parasitic diseases (such as brucellosis working with infected animals).
Occupational diseases are in the USSR small share in the overall incidence of working. Many professional disease completely eradicated. In the prevention of occupational diseases play an important role systematic improvement and close monitoring of labour conditions, as well as preliminary and periodic medical examinations. The preliminary examination is to identify persons suffering from a disease in which the contact with this professional factor is contraindicated (see Professional selection). Task periodical examinations is the systematic monitoring of the health of workers and the timely identification they somatic diseases, preventing the continuation of the work, and identifying initial deviations caused by the effect of factors of production environment, and the appointment of therapeutic interventions sick, and development of measures aimed at improving working conditions.
Patients of occupational diseases subject to transfer to work, not associated with the data harmful production factors, without prejudice wage; if necessary outpatient or inpatient, or resort treatment. In case of reduction or loss of ability to work of the patients sent to VTEC for determining disability group on General or professional disease.

Occupational diseases are diseases that occur when exposed to occupational hazards.
The severity of clinical manifestations of occupational diseases is dependent on the duration and intensity of exposure to occupational hazards, considerable importance is also the state of the resistance and the reactivity of the organism (see). The clinical picture P. B. are reflected as non-specific response of the body on the damaging action, and features due to the specificity of biological effects of individual factors of the working environment (enzyme action, the electoral defeat of separate organs and systems, and so on). The distinct stages of professional diseases differ known stereotype leading manifestations of pathological process, allowing to differentiate them from the forms, close to the forms of General pathology.
In the early stages syndromes occupational diseases are nonspecific. The establishment of causative connection between disease profession is based on historical data, the presence of similar diseases among professional groups, as well as on a detailed review of working conditions.
In accordance with the exposure principle adopted the following classification of occupational diseases. 1. Professional disease toxic nature. 2. Occupational diseases caused by dust [pneumoconiosis (see), dust bronchitis]. 3. I. b., due to ionizing radiation [luchevaya disease (see)] and electromagnetic oscillations. 4. I. b., caused by exposure to industrial noise and vibration [professional hearing loss (see), vibration disease (see)]. 5. I. b., caused by exposure to weather conditions [overheating of the body (see), sudorozhny disease and so on]. 6. I. b., due to a change in atmospheric pressure [altitude sickness, the bends (see Decompression illness (DCI), Etc.]. 7. Occupational diseases caused by static strain muscles and musculoskeletal apparatus, forced to pose, injury to the nerves. 8. Infectious and parasitic diseases in persons displaced by professional responsibilities to come in contact with infected material or maintain infectious patients (anthropozoonosts, tuberculosis epidemic hepatitis, and other).
In clinical purposes apply the principle of the system of classification of diseases depending on preferential localization of pathological process: professional skin diseases, respiratory organs, blood system, nervous system, etc., This division makes it possible to identify both the General regularities and features associated with the action of various factors.
In the USSR because of the widespread and systematic Wellness activities has dramatically decreased the number of occupational diseases and almost completely disappeared them severe. The focus is on the study of early manifestations of occupational diseases and their prevention. Identification of the early stages ensures the effectiveness of treatment and prevention P. B. Special preventive importance mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers so-called hazardous occupations carried out by physicians health services of industrial enterprises.
In clinics P. B. along with the study of these diseases much attention is paid to social problems - the impact of labour conditions on General morbidity, state of the reactivity of the organism, immune processes, the incidence of cardiovascular system, the characteristics of the course of infectious diseases, etc.
A significant place in the work of profpatologii is concerned with the examination of ability to work with occupational diseases. Problems of labor expertise in P. b.: identifying initial stages of diseases, the prevention of disease progression, timely rational employment. The law provides for a special (wider in comparison with foreign countries) list of occupational diseases, in accordance with which the people affected are entitled to financial compensation.
Cm. also Poisoning (professional), Occupational hazards.