Occupational hazards

Occupational hazards - various production factors having adverse effects on health and human performance.
Sources occupational hazards mainly due to imperfect production processes, technologies and inefficient equipment design. This group occupational hazards include: toxic substances, dust, radioactive substances, ionizing, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, electromagnetic waves, noise, vibration, ultrasound, high and low temperature, high relative humidity, high and low atmospheric pressure and other Occupational hazards may be associated with an inefficient organization of the labor process, its intensity and duration. These include a large nervous system, vision, hearing (managers on airports, Railways, drivers, traffic controllers, Secretary and other), frequent repetitive movements (work on the production line and a large voltage separate muscular groups or long lasting forced body position and other
Occupational hazards can be biological factors, such as bacteria and viruses. Their influence may be the staff of the infectious hospital wards, disinfection services, employees of the meat processing plants at cutting carcasses affected by brucellosis, hunters, workers fur farms and other Ticks can be a professional hazards in logging, exploration work in the taiga and others With the danger of helminth infection can meet fishermen, farmers, breeders, workers and other vivarium
Occupational hazards of certain force and duration of exposure can cause the development of occupational diseases (see) and professional intoxications lead, mercury, manganese, chromium, beryllium, cadmium, vanadium, chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, cyanide, chlorinated hydrocarbons, benzene and its amido - and nitro compounds and other Long-term impact nerezko expressed occupational hazards may lead to lowering of the resistance of the organism and cause more severe unprofessional diseases (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, some infectious diseases), complicate their treatment and cause a high rate of complications.
At many enterprises of the USSR, built on the basis of modern technology, many occupational hazards completely eliminated, and the influence of other sharply reduced. However, occupational hazards remain relevant at the present time, so as to eliminate many of them modern science and technology does not give sufficiently effective solutions. Use in industry of new achievements of science and technology, nuclear physics, electronics, chemistry, creation of new production facilities and technological processes, introduction into industry and agriculture of many new chemicals confront health workers in the task of identifying and exploring new occupational hazards, and before the technology is to develop efficient measures of protection against them.
The socialist organization of production creates a real opportunity for elimination of occupational hazards, the improvement of labor conditions and health of workers.
To determine the effects of individual occupational hazards or their entirety on the body are studying the influence of various adverse factors in biological experiments, as well as the health status of working on the respective enterprises, using the results of periodic medical examinations, morbidity data, etc.
Knowledge of occupational hazards is important for nurses, as this category of health workers involved in the compilation of sanitary characteristics of workshops, production sectors, professions, together with the heads of departments shall prepare lists of workers subject to medical examinations, defines occupational hazards in the production, with the help of instruments establishes the regularity and intensity of their evaluates to reduce occupational hazards efficiency improving measures.
Accounting of occupational hazards is required for the employment of people with disabilities and development of contra-indications to employment.
Thus, in particular, account should be taken of the effect of occupational hazards on the female body and especially during pregnancy. Lifting weights, forced prolonged awkward body position, pressure on the abdomen, vibration, electromagnetic fields, ionising radiation, many chemicals, in particular benzene, caprolactam and other, can adversely affect a woman's body, her fertility and the health of the fetus. It is necessary to strictly observe the Russian legislation on labour protection pregnant (Art. Art. 131, 132 and 133 of the Labor code of the USSR).
In connection with the anatomical and physiological characteristics and great sensitivity of organism of teenagers to the effects of occupational hazards they are not allowed to heavy work requiring considerable physical effort, works with harmful conditions.

Occupational hazards is unfavorable factors of labor and production processes, and health and sanitary conditions of labour, which may directly or indirectly to impair the performance and health of workers.
Classification of occupational hazards.
I. Hazard associated with improper organization of labor process: 1) inefficient mode of work; 2) excessive intensification of labour process; 3) excessive length of the working day; 4) long forced uniform position of the body; 5) the strain of separate systems and organs (the nervous system, sensory organs, locomotorium and others).
II. Hazards associated with improper organization and violations of a technological mode of production processes.
A. Physical factors: 1) adverse meteorological conditions (see Atmosphere, Air, Climate, Microclimate); 2) the different types of radiation (see ionizing Radiation. Radioactivity, X-rays, Ultraviolet radiation) is visible rays (blinding brightness - see Lighting), short infrared radiation (see), radio waves with the wave length from a few millimeters to several kilometers (high currents, ultra-high and ultra-high frequency); 3) industrial noise (see) and vibration (see), ultrasound (see); 4) high and low atmospheric pressure (see Decompression illness, Vibrotherapy).
B. Chemical and physico-chemical factors: industrial poisons (see Poisoning, Poisons of industrial), industrial dust (see).
C. Biological factors: pollution pathogenic microflora; contact with infectious material and sick animals (contamination with pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi, as well as eggs and larvae, worms).
III. Hazards associated with violations of sanitary conditions at work.
IV. Hazards associated with the work outdoors (weather conditions, solar radiation, humidity, drench, and others).
The circle of occupational hazards is constantly changing. A seven-hour (and for some of the work a six-hour working day in the USSR had a positive impact on the regime of work. Widely implemented mechanization and automation of production contributed to the liberation of the workers from heavy physical work, etc. In some cases due to improvement of technological processes is changing the nature of privrzenost.
Sometimes technological progress is accompanied by the emergence of new adverse factors (for example, the use in the industry of high waves, ultra-high and ultra-high frequency). Greatly expanded and the number of persons exposed to ionizing radiation (see Radiation hygiene).
In agriculture wide use in pest control have received various previously unknown chemicals - pesticides (see agricultural Pesticides). The use of organic synthesis in the production of synthetic resins, organic dyes and drugs increased the risk of poisoning industrial poisons (mainly organic in nature).
As a result of successful combat privatnosti in the USSR reached a decrease in overall morbidity (not professional), injuries (see) and especially occupational diseases (see Professional diseases).