Allergy to cow's milk is a common disease, especially in early childhood. This disease affects many systems of the body, causing a variety of symptoms, and its diagnosis and treatment is often associated with significant difficulties. It only remains to put into practice contained in the proverb's wisdom "is easier to prevent than to cure." The greatest concern is allergic to milk brings in early childhood, and therefore preventive measures is best to start with the moment of birth or even during pregnancy. The higher the risk of developing allergies is, the more important preventive measures. The highest risk group is children whose parents are allergic to milk. If allergies to milk suffering mother, she should not use this product during pregnancy, which in itself reduces the chance of fetal sensitization of the fetus. If allergies to milk suffers only the father, the mother usually does not limit the intake of milk during pregnancy or lactation. This Chapter will detail the role of these factors in the development of allergies in children.
Prevention of allergies to milk has medical, social and economic consequences. It gives the possibility to reduce the number of visits to the doctor, to reduce the need for hospitalization and diagnostic procedures, as well as to reduce the intake of drugs. In one study [1] it is estimated that the percentage of children with allergies to milk in need of visiting doctors for the 1st year of life, was 3 times higher than among children without allergies, and the number of hospitalizations and twice more. Liquidation of chronic or recurrent diseases, including allergies to milk, will contribute to a better physical and psychological development of children, especially during early childhood, when there is a formation of the body.
According to many authors, Allergy to cow's milk is less common in children who did not receive it in the neonatal period than those who were feeding cow's milk since birth [2-5]. In children receiving milk from the cow, the development of eczema note 7 times more often than those who were exclusively breastfed [6]. Prospective studies Saarinen et al. [7], and also Gruskay [8] show that the feeding of infants during the first 6 months or more, especially if family history is celebrated atopy, significantly reduces the number of allergic diseases. On the other hand, Halperri et al. [9] cast doubt on the expediency exception of cow's milk from the diet newborns as preventive measures aimed at the elimination of allergies. According to the authors, the number of allergic diseases was similar in 3 examined groups of children under the age of 6 years, treated at an early age soy blend, breast or cow's milk. However, in the group of children who were breastfed, many were additionally, infant formula, so the data will be difficult. This work is based on the analysis of the various tests and does not contain data about the frequency of allergic diseases at an early age, including allergies to milk described in three groups. A more careful assessment of the presented data suggest that among treated cow's milk to children allergic to it still more common than in other groups. Allergy to cow's milk was observed in 16% of children with allergies treated with childhood milk at 12% among all children with allergies and, as you might expect, this rate is much lower among breastfed infants; it is shown that breastfeeding does not guarantee the development of other types of allergies in the later period in children with manifestations of atopy.
Prevention of Allergy to milk are the following:
1) the promotion and encouragement of breastfeeding practices;
2) expansion of the network of banks breast milk;
3) the use of dairy mixes with low allergenic properties or milk substitutes;
4) restriction of consumption of cow's milk in families with a high risk of developing allergies.
It is obvious that effective prevention program cannot be implemented only by the efforts of doctors. This requires the active cooperation of physicians, women's organizations and firms producing baby food.
The program of early prevention of allergies to milk includes:
A. Expansion of the practice of breastfeeding and network banks breast milk, use hypoallergenic formula and restricted consumption of cow's milk in families with a high risk of developing allergies.
B. Ensuring the active cooperation of health workers (medical faculties and schools, obstetric and pediatric hospitals, specialized obstetric hospitals, antenatal clinics, workers health education), women's organizations and firms producing baby food.