Industrial injuries and measures of struggle against them

Occupational injury is damage to the different nature of received production. There are injuries mechanical, chemical, thermal and electric. The share of individual types of injuries depends on the nature of the production process.
Causes of occupational injuries are:
lack or imperfection of protections and safety devices in vehicles and machines, the failure of equipment and tools;
- sanitary blagoustroistvo jobs. These include insufficient or defective lighting of the workplace and premises of the shop, adverse microclimate. So, for example, high temperatures, along with radiation and high relative humidity decreases attention, fast reaction of work and increases the risk of accidents;
- insufficient training of workers safety rules;
- the use by workers wrong, dangerous methods of work;
- lack of or defective condition of the individual protective devices;
- irrational regime of work and rest.
The main measures to combat injuries:
- maintenance of equipment, instruments, adequate fencing moving parts of machines;
fighting clutter of working premises. Products and materials should be put in certain places in the shop. Mechanized removal of waste and industrial waste warns clutter shop;
- improvement of natural and artificial lighting;
- systematic supervision over observance of rules of safety and employee training to correct work methods;
- supply of workers means of individual protection and control over their use;
- conducting of measures on combating fatigue: enhance the production environment, the rational regime of work and rest.
A very important and effective for the fight against industrial injuries is the registration, recording and investigation of accidents.
A special place among injury occupy electric shock, eye injuries, pustular diseases of the skin (piodermia)associated with trauma to the skin.
Frequency electric shock is small (a few percent), but approximately 15% fatal. Prevention of electric shock is limited to compliance with the established safety regulations in the repair and installation of electrical equipment, provision of workers with individual protective devices (gloves, overshoes, mats), tools with the handle of an insulating material, the training of employees. Important isolation open source voltage, under voltage.
Eye injuries occupies a prominent place in the metallurgical and engineering industries. Most of the time (15-25% of all injuries) he meets the grinders, obrovskou, clealscob, grinders. Eyes can be damaged particles cold metal, slag and other Injuries can be serious, up to the perforation of the eyeball, but in most cases it is limited to superficial damage to the cornea.
Eye protection from injury is conducted in two directions: personal protection measures (protective glasses, masks, shields) and measures of collective protection (local exhaust ventilation at a place of dust, shavings, sparks).
Pustular diseases of the skin (piodermia) arise as a result of air pollution from industrial premises dust. Of great importance micro skin, contributing to its infection. Important role in this respect is played various lubricating oils, emulsions used in cold metal. The emergence of pyodermia also promotes the application for wiping hands nephrolith and deproteinization cleaning materials.
To combat pyodermia in hot and dusty shops it is necessary to carry out measures on reduction of air temperature, dust (aeration, air shower, dust removal from the place of education and others). In mechanical workshops, where piodermii arise as a result of infection minor injuries, it is necessary to take measures to remove chips from machine tools with special hooks. It is very important to organize handling of minor injuries directly in the shop tincture of iodine. To prevent oil tinea need to replace oil cooling emulsion with a lower oil content, prevent contamination of hands and body oils (leakage control equipment, establishment of guards on machines for protection against oil spray). Cleaning material should be disinfected.
Important in the fight against pyodermia has individual protection of workers and personal hygiene. Workers should be provided with protective clothing. For hand protection use indifferent paste, warning contact of the skin with oil. Working in contact with oils, it is necessary to provide possibility of washing the body with warm water and soap in the shower after work. In the fight against pyodermia great importance is fast processing of the skin with micro traumas and timely access to a doctor. By systematically sanitary-educational work it is necessary to instill a work skills timely referral. Dermatologist and the surgeon must actively and systematically to attend the workshops, in which on conditions of work, you may experience of pyodermia.