Industrial sanitation

Industrial sanitation (industrial sanitation) - the section of General sanitation carrying out activities for the correct device, equipment and maintenance of industrial enterprises in order to protect the health of workers and the population living in the immediate vicinity of the enterprise.
Practical measures for improvement of working conditions are based on hygienic norms for industrial premises (norms temperature, relative humidity and speed of movement of air, the maximum allowable concentration of harmful gases, vapors and dust in the air of industrial premises, maximum permissible levels of noise and vibration and other). The area of industrial sanitation are: sanitary improvement of the territory of industrial enterprises and the area surrounding them, hygienic problems of the structure of production and auxiliary buildings and premises, industrial ventilation and lighting.
Observation of sanitary actions during design, construction and re-equipment of industrial enterprises, as well as the systematic monitoring of industrial enterprises and working conditions in them is carried out by bodies of the state sanitary supervision.
When conducting current sanitary control at industrial enterprise of the industrial-sanitary doctors and assistants sanitary doctors operate in conjunction with a workshop doctors health parts or physicians of the health units and technical inspectors of the trade Union bodies for the control of labour protection and safety engineering.
The main document on industrial sanitation are now the "Sanitary norms of planning industrial enterprises" (SN-245-71), included in the national "Building norms and rules" (SN P). These documents set out the basic requirements that must constantly be observed when selecting the industrial site, location therein of industrial and auxiliary buildings, the device and the equipment for heating, lighting, ventilation, water supply and Sewerage.
Common to all industries are also "Sanitary rules of organization of technological processes and hygienic requirements to production equipment" № 554-65. The requirements of these rules are aimed at preventing harmful factors in production.
Along with these rules of industrial ministries in coordination with the Ministry of health of the USSR and the all are different sanitary rules, rules on safety and industrial hygiene, instructions and methodical letter outlining hygienic requirements for specific industries (for example, "Sanitary rules for the arrangement and content of factories and workshops of construction glass" № 665-67); for the supervision of individual types of works (for example, "Sanitary rules for welding and cutting of metals" №725-67). In a separate sanitary regulations set out the requirements towards the limitation of noise, vibration, ultrasound, ionizing radiation, etc.
Mechanization and automation of labor-intensive and harmful work, and wide implementation of practical activities in the field of industrial sanitation, held at the factories and plants in the USSR, plays a huge role in the recovery of the working conditions and preventing occupational diseases.

Industrial sanitation system of practical measures aimed at preventing adverse effects of working conditions on the health of persons employed in industry.
Industrial sanitation is part of the production hygiene, including measures to prevent the adverse effects of working conditions on the health of workers in all types of transport, communication, construction, forestry and agriculture.
The main task of the industrial sanitation are on the prevention of occupational diseases and occupational poisonings, improving the overall health of workers. Theoretical substantiation of the provisions of the industrial sanitation are developed hygienic research institutes and are put in the basis of hygienic norms and sanitary rules, approved by the Chief sanitary doctor of the USSR. The approved norms and rules obligatory for execution in all territory of the USSR.
The main practical activities of industrial hygiene performed in the process of construction, reconstruction and operation of industrial enterprises include: (1) rational planning of production facilities in relation to the technological process; 2) the size of the areas and volumes of business premises; 3) organization of a working place; 4) natural and artificial lighting; 5) heating and ventilation; (6) water and sanitation; 7) purification of industrial atmospheric emissions and waste water into water bodies; 8) provision of working household premises.
Tasks of industrial hygiene in the formation and entering the workroom air harmful substances (in the form of gases, vapours, mists or dusts) are in isolation equipment or premises with harmful discharge from areas that do not have emissions, sealing equipment, the removal of harmful substances from their places of allocation of means of ventilation, excluding direct contact of working with hazardous substances, replacing harmful substances harmless (if applicable under the terms of production), mechanization and automation of time-consuming, difficult and dangerous (threatening poisoning or disease) work, reduction of working time, the extension of leave, provision of personal protective devices protective clothing and shoes, respirators, gas masks, goggles and other).
Performing hygienic norms and sanitary rules in industry rests with the administration of the enterprises, the control over their execution is carried out sanitary-epidemiological stations. To control widely involved in public sanitary inspectors working in contact with the technical inspectors of the trade unions, which we follow the implementation of safety rules and work on prevention of occupational injuries.