Research methods prostate

One of the main research methods of the prostate is the digital rectal feeling. Palpation of the prostate is made at different positions: knee-bent elbow or vertical (Fig. 3); on the right side with reduced to the stomach legs (Fig. 4); on the back with divorced and bent at the knee and hip joints of the lower limbs. The selection of the position depends on the objectives of the study and the condition of the patient. To obtain the secret of the prostate is the most convenient position of the knee-elbow and on the right side. On his back often produced a study weak and ill. To determine the size of the prostate should use two-handed study in the patient on the back.

Fig. 3. Half-bent position of the patient in the study of prostate cancer.
Fig. 4. The patient on the right Bonu in the study of prostate cancer.

When two-handed study ends of the fingers of the left hand slightly above the pubic joint press on the abdominal wall in the direction of the prostate, raised up my right finger inserted into the rectum, and determine the length, width, thickness and smexiest prostate. Patients of average weight at the normal size of the prostate can be palpated the entire rear its surface and the tip of your finger to feel the back surface of the pubic joint. If the prostate is enlarged, it is to cover her index finger is not possible. Digital examination must be made after emptying of the bladder. OK when finger rectal examination of the prostate is defined at a distance of 3-4 cm from the anus and is shaped like a chestnut. Transverse diameter at the base of the prostate ranges from 2.2 to 5 cm, longitudinal - from 2.5 to 4.2, see the Consistency of its elastic all over, the boundaries clear; in the middle of the prostate is determined by the longitudinal groove, dividing it into two wibehouse in the rectum is equal to the side lobe.
The mucous membrane of the rectum over prostate mobile.
In the study it is necessary to pay attention to symmetry of the shares of the prostate, to change its size, shape, consistency, flexibility, sensitivity, on the state of the seminal vesicles and the walls of the rectum. With the defeat of the prostate the size it can be sharply reduced (atrophy) or increased (adenoma, cyst). The consistency of prostate cancer ranges from soft and flabby (atony, chronic prostatitis) to the cartilage or rocky (cancer, stone). Thick lumpy education of different size or pockets of softening or areas zapadenia in place oporozhnenija abscesses characteristic of tuberculous lesions of prostate. Form and boundaries it can be unclear, iron can blend in with the surrounding tissues (periprostatic); often noted pain prostate palpation (acute or chronic prostatitis).
The study of the secret of the prostate gland is an important diagnostic method. They can be identified inflammatory, fungal or neoplastic processes in the prostate gland. It is necessary to note the presence of white blood cells, their number, their connection with the presence of secret lecithin grains. The absence of the latter or small their number indicates inflammation.
For suspected cancer of the prostate produces Cytology her secret.
For the diagnosis of cancer is a biopsy needed prostate cancer cytological and histological examination of the received material.
A biopsy is produced either by outcrops of the prostate and excision suspicious lesion area - an open biopsy, or by perineal or rectal puncture prostate - closed biopsy (see below prostate Cancer).
Cystoscopy (see) is a complement to the existing methods; it is not shown in all cases of increase of the volume of the prostate. Acute prostatitis cystoscopy is contraindicated and has limited read at prostatic hypertrophy (see below). Zitostaticescoe research also serves as a method of differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors of the prostate, neurogenic and other causes urination disorders.