Tumors of the prostate gland (prostate)

Among benign tumors of the prostate gland (prostate) in men over the age of 50 years, the most commonly observed adenoma - benign glandular neoplasia. Adenomatous changes in the prostate gland meet at 35-45% of men at the age of 50-60 years, and 75% - aged 65-75 years. In the clinical course of prostate adenoma there are three stages: I stage apparent discomfort in the perineum or lower abdomen, difficulty and frequent urination, especially at night. Urine flow sluggish. Over time intervals between urination reduced frequency of nighttime urination can reach 6-8 times. At a palpation of the prostate somewhat enlarged, solid elastic consistence, with smooth median sulcus. In stage I, the muscular wall of the bladder hypertrophies, which is why the urinary bladder is emptied completely. II stage is characterized by the appearance of symptoms of "residual urine" - chronic retention of urine in the bladder. In the second stage, after the act of urine remaining in the bladder urine, in the amount of 100-200 ml can be detected by catheterization. Over time, the muscle of the bladder weakens, the amount of residual urine increases, accompanied infection causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder (see Cystitis), formed rocks. Urination is not only very frequent, but painful, there are disorders of the upper urinary tract. There comes a stage III prostate gland adenoma - stage paradoxical istorii, i.e. incontinence its chronic delays. Stage III is characterized by a pronounced impaired renal function, the specific gravity of the urine becomes low (1002-1005). In this stage cease painful urination, but patients mark the permanent incontinence, she stands out drop by drop. The number of daily urine in the bladder and up to 2-3 liters Appears azotemia, which is expressed in a sharp deterioration of health of the patient, weakness, dry mouth and thirst, diarrhoea disorders - nausea, constipation. In stage III is often pyelonephritis (see), which in turn impairs renal function, accelerating the development of kidney failure.
In the I and II stages of the disease may occur acute urinary retention caused by congestion pelvic organs due to alcohol consumption, long-term constipation, hypothermia. In stage I, after catheterization of the bladder with acute urinary retention urination is restored, in stage II - can not be restored. Catheterization should be carried out in compliance with strict aseptic rubber catheter Nelaton or Timann. Catheterization metal catheter is medical manipulation and requires special skill.
For the diagnosis of prostate adenoma conduct the following studies: palpation of the prostate, percussion bladder, examination of newly urine, suspected of residual urine - catheterization of the bladder, clinical analysis of urine and blood samples of zimnitsky tests (see Kidneys), studied blood on residual nitrogen.
From x-ray methods of research produces excretory urography for the study of renal function, state of the upper urinary tract and cystography with oxygen or 10% solution of sergazina to get the image into the lumen of the bladder benign prostatic hyperplasia (lacunar cystography).
Treatment: conservative therapy is possible during the first two stages of the disease; it includes hygienic regimen, diet, medication. Patients should avoid common cooling and cooling of the feet, prolonged sitting, long drive by car or bike. Peredergivali urine when the urge can cause acute urinary retention. Essential for normal function of the intestines, for constipation prescribe laxatives. Alcoholic drinks and beer should be prohibited. From food ration exclude spices, mustard, canned and smoked meats. Drug treatment is aimed at reducing congestion pelvic organs and infection control: used antibiotics (chloramphenicol 0.5 g 3-4 times a day, oletetrin 0.25 g 4 times a day for 5-7 days), sulfonamides (etazol by 1.0 g 4 times a day, prosulpin 0.5 g 3-4 times a day for 7-10 days) or drugs nitrofuranovye series (furadonin 0.1 g 3 times a day for 10-15 days). Operative therapy of prostate adenoma patients produce Rasputinu adenomektomii.
From a malignant tumor at the age of 60-70 years of age are more likely to have cancer of the prostate, which may long be asymptomatic. With the growth of the tumor pain in the perineum and the rump, a fast painful, difficulty urinating up to acute urine retention. Tumor spread beyond the prostate can cause compression of the lower divisions urinary tract and violation of the outflow of urine from the upper urinary tract. Spreads prostate cancer, mainly in the bones of the pelvis and sacrum and the lumbar section of the spine.
The diagnosis of prostate cancer establish by palpation of the prostate gland, which find seals in the prostate gland cartilage consistency. In the late stages of prostate cancer is defined as flattened, but uneven, very dense education without clear contours. With suspected prostate cancer patient must be made cystoscopy, an x-ray of the pelvis and spine, a biopsy of the prostate, which is more often made by puncture through the rectum.
Prostate cancer treatment: radical removal of the prostate is possible only in an early stage prostate cancer; the vast majority of patients at the beginning of treatment produce castration - removal of both testicles, and then a long period of time (years) carry out the treatment of female sexual hormones. Violation of urination, chronic urinary retention and azotemii produce transurethral resection of the prostate. This operation consists of the excision of areas of the tumor in the neck of the bladder using a special instrument called resectoscope, inserted through the urethra. Excision produce loop, which serves a current of high frequency controlled eyes.