Proteinemia

Proteinemia - blood proteins. In a healthy person in the serum contains 7-8% protein, which consists of factions albumins and globulins, their ratio is called albumin-globulin ratio (see). The decline in quantity of protein (hypoproteinemia) is observed during prolonged fasting, enteritis, pancreatitis, nephrotic syndrome; increased protein (hyperproteinemia) - in multiple myeloma and some forms of retikuleze. Qualitative change, i.e. changes in the ratio of protein fractions of blood (dysproteinemia), observed with nephrotic syndrome, liver, etc.

Proteinuria (protein + GK. haima, blood - the blood levels of simple proteins, including albumin and globulins. Fibrinogen and prothrombin belonging to globulin fractions, consider usually separate from the group. In the blood plasma in norm is contained 7-8% protein. The amount of albumin (see) in serum or plasma is 4-5%; the content globulin (see) - an average of 2 to 2.5%. The ratio of albumin to globulins is expressed as 4 : 2 (see Albumin-globulin ratio).
Normal quantitative and qualitative content of proteins called aprotinina, a reduction of protein - hypoproteinemia, increased by hyperproteinemia. The presence in the blood plasma false (abnormal) proteins called paraproteinemia. Qualitative change, i.e. changes in the ratio of protein fractions, designate dysproteinemia.
When gipoproteinemii usually observed reduction of serum albumin (hypoalbuminemia) and relative or absolute increased globulins. The main reasons gipoproteinemii: 1) insufficient intake or absorption of protein; 2) loss of protein; 3) increased protein breakdown; 4) the defeat of the bodies, forming proteins; 5) congenital or hereditary factors contributing to the decrease or absence of one of protein fractions. In violation of the absorption of amino acids in the digestive tract for diseases such as sprue, ulcerative colitis, diarrhea infectious origin, pancreatitis, intestinal fistula, akusticheskii or ainteragency syndrome (after gastric resection or removal of a large segment of the small intestine), etc. but reduce the total number of proteins due to albumin, an increase A1, A2 and ' -globulin.
alpha-globulin (necrotic albumin) is increasing in all cases, necrosis, or tissue destruction.
Because albumin and partially globulins (especially α faction)and fibrinogen are formed in the liver, defeat it leads to gipoalbuminemii and reduction of alpha-globulin; '-globulins are increased (cirrhosis of the liver, chronic hepatitis).
There are unclear etiology of congenital or hereditary gipoproteinemii in which there is a decrease or absence of one of protein fractions. Gipogammaglobulinemia may be congenital and acquired. Reduction ' -fractions observed with nephrotic syndrome, amyloidosis, after traumatic shock, tumors of the digestive tract and other
Congenital agammaglobulinemia and gipogammaglobulinemia caused by insufficient activity of the reticuloendothelial system and impaired production of this globulin plasma cells. As gamma globulin is associated with the formation of antibodies, with a decrease or lack of it lowers the body's resistance to infection.
Rare are the essential hypoproteinemia and albuminemia in which you cannot find any internal organ involvement. The cause of their not clear.
The increase in individual globulin fractions depends primarily on acute or
chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases, allergic diseases and tissue necrosis associated with the process of disintegration and resorption. Thus, in cases of acute inflammation dominated ekssoudativee processes a decrease in the number of albumin and increased alpha-globulins and fibrinogen. Chronic inflammatory process reduces the amount of albumin and an increasing number ' -globulin, which is associated with the formation of antibodies (protective protein).
The total protein in the plasma is determined colloid-osmotic pressure of blood, i.e. oncotic pressure. Almost 80% of the osmotic effect falls on serum albumin. So of gipoalbuminemii without compensatory increase the content of globulins osmotic pressure is reduced and developed swelling. In addition, when gipoproteinemii violated the nutrition of tissues, the balance of nitrogen balance, transfer of nutrients to the organs and tissues (especially some of lipids), reduced immunity and body resistance.
Paraproteinemia usually accompanied by hyperproteinemia (macroglobulinemia, myeloma, hyperglobulinemia purpura, cryoglobulinemia).
Revealing of qualitative and quantitative changes in the protein composition of the blood plasma is of great importance for diagnosis and treatment. When gipoproteinemii or decreasing content of any one protein fraction, in addition to the main treatment, it is necessary to introduce proteins in the form of plasma or individual drugs (gamma globulin, albumin and other). Cm. also the Blood.