Anthelminthic

Sedative (deworming drugs) - drugs used for the treatment of helminthic invasions (nematodosis, cestodoses, the trematodozov).
Antihelminthic means divided into 2 groups.
1. Drugs used for the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, including the struggle with it tools (piperazine, heptylresorcinol, Naftalan, sulphur treated, thymol, oil henopodievoe, four-chloride ethylene, daisann, gentian violet) and protivocesterne funds (extract male fern thick, Felikson, dichlorophen, fenasal, Akrikhin, aminoacridine, bark granatnik, pumpkin seeds).
2. Drugs used for the treatment of extra-intestinal helminths, including the struggle with it tools - detrain (see) and protivotrematodoznye means of antimonyl-sodium tartrate, hexachloroethane, haksil.
The selective action antihelminthic means relative. Some sedative effect on various types of worms.
In the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis is important to create a high concentration antihelminthic means in the intestine. Therefore, prior to treatment, take measures to ensure that in the digestive tract was possibly less content that can communicate antihelminthic drug. Within 2-3 days prior to treatment antihelminthic means the patient usually contain easily digestible diet, and on the eve of treatment sharply restrict the diet and prescribed a laxative. Laxative apply also after taking antihelminthic means with the purpose of expulsion from the intestines weakened parasites and yet limit the time spent antihelminthic means in the gut, and hence the possibility of its suction.
In small doses sedative may, without causing destruction of worms, oppress laying eggs. This effect is usually temporary and can complicate the control of cure.
The mechanism of action of antihelminthic means varied. Some of antihelminthic means damage the cuticle of helminths (heptylresorcinol fenasal), others have a narcotic effect (thymol, hexachloride), others change the tone and motor activity of parasites (santonin, detrain, piperazine, Naftalan).
A sedative may have toxic effects not only on the worms, but on the body of their media. Therefore, you should follow the scheme and terms of appointment of each drug. Cm. articles on the names of pills and drugs.

Sedative (deworming drugs, Anthelmintica) is a chemotherapy drugs used to treat parasitic diseases of humans and animals. To funds from worms also include some herbal preparations: male fern, tsitvarnoy wormwood and others (see the Medicinal plants). Increasingly important synthetic funds from worms.
Different types of worms can live in almost all organs and tissues of the owner, and therefore antihelminthic means and methods of helminthic therapy is very diverse. Considered separately funds from worms to treat worms, causative agents of which inhabit the digestive tract and in the depth of certain tissues. The same tool from worms, depending on the dose, the physiological state of the organism of the owner, the number of worms and their settlement in the body can lead to the selection of parasites in a live state or kill them (extract male fern and others). VP of Paribok (1954) proposed to examine separately the specific sedative acting selectively on parasitic worms, and non-specific, operating on helminth as protoplasmatic poisons.
Conveniently division antihelminthic means in accordance with the systematic position of pathogens on the struggle with it, protivocesterne and protivotrematodoznye. Certain drugs may appear in more than one of such groups (carbon tetrachloride and other). A. I. Krotov (1958) proposed to classify funds from worms, depending on the mechanism of their action on parasitic worms. 1. A sedative to the pervasive effect on the nervous system of worms: a) narcotic drugs; (b) substances affecting mainly the transmission of nerve impulses. 2. Anthelminthic, principally affecting the cuticle of worms. 3. Anthelminthic, affecting mostly neuromuscular system of flat worms. 4. A sedative that affects the enzymatic processes of worms: a) reinforcing aerobic respiration; b) depressing aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C) influencing various enzyme systems. The mechanism of action of a number of deworming drugs have not been clarified, and their place in the classification, therefore, is not defined.
Expressed narcotic effect on the worms have tetrachloride carbon tetrachloride ethylene, hexachloride (see) and thymol (see). Carbon tetrachloride withdrawn from medical practice because of toxicity; other preparations and tablets are replaced with more effective and less toxic. To the means of worms, affecting mainly the transmission of nerve impulses are santonin (see), detrain (see), piperazine (see), Naftalan (see) and organophosphorus compounds. All these drugs and pills even in high concentrations not kill worms, and cause them to have only a violation motor reactions. The santonin applied with ascariasis, but due to the fact that it operates only on the adult Ascaris, he replaced piperazine, applicable to all age groups nematodes. Besides, the advantages of piperazine are somewhat lower toxicity and efficiency as in enterobiasis. Detrain quite effective in ascariasis, but it is mainly used in tissue helminths: (filariidae); the mechanism of its action on filari not yet clear. Assume that detrain creates favorable conditions for influence on filari of phagocytes. Naftalan, structurally similar to acetylcholine (see), apparently, holinomimeticescoe effect; it has low toxicity, effective when ankilostomidoze, ascariasis and enterobiasis and to a lesser extent in trichocephalosis. Organophosphorus compounds inhibit cholinesterase; they are very toxic to humans.
To antihelminthic means, principally affecting the cuticle parasitic worms are heptylresorcinol fenasal (jemesen), dichlorophen and vegetable proteolytic enzymes (papain and others). Heptylresorcinol causes of worms burns cuticle, but damages, although to a lesser extent, the mucous membrane of the digestive tract of man, which limits its use in medicine. Fenasal and dichlorophen have a specific destructive effect on the cuticle of tapeworms. After the destruction of the cuticle tapeworms are killed and digested by the enzymes of intestines. Fenasal - non-toxic product, it's highly effective tsestodozah, especially in combination with other tools from worms (A. I. Krotov et al., 1962-1965). Dichlorophen used in medical practice, only in combination with fenasalom.
The group deworming drugs, with a predominant effect on neuromuscular system of flat worms are drugs male fern, ether extract male fern, Felikson, bark granatnik, Akrikhin (see) and aminoacridine (see). The mechanism of action is not completely studied. All of these drugs are quite toxic to humans, but when used in reduced doses in combination with fenasalom increase the efficiency of deworming to 95-100%. Also effective combination extract male fern with Akrikhin.
The most extensive group are funds from worms that affect the enzymatic processes parasitic worms. Oxygen is used in the ascariasis (N. P. Kravets, 1952). It causes intoxication Ascaris hydrogen peroxide in connection with the scarcity of the enzyme catalase, neutralizes hydrogen peroxide. Cyanine dyes suppress in helminthes aerobic and anaerobic respiration. When trichocephalosis and strongiloidoze apply daisann, however, because of the high toxicity of the use of this drug must be very limited. On a variety of enzyme systems influence phenothiazines, osarsol (withdrawn from medical practice due to toxicity), drugs antimony (notebase, Fadin and others)used in filariidae and schistosomiasis.
Recently, helminthological practice includes all new and new means of worms, displacing older, less effective and more toxic drugs. Significant efficiency fascioliasis has hexachlorparaxylol, mechanism of action which has not been studied. This drug is successfully applied in opisthorchiasis (N. N. Plotnikov and 3. C. Yaldigina, 1962), and later when klonorhoz. Cm. also Devastate.