Anti-tuberculosis drugs

Drug - chemotherapy drugs used for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis.
Among tuberculosis drugs distinguish the main anti-tuberculosis drugs or the drugs I stimulants, including streptomycin, PASK, beback, isoniazid, ftivazide, salyuzid, laruan, INGA-17, metazid, ceased; other-drug - cycloserine, florimitsin, kanamycin, ethionamide, pyrazinamide, atoxic, thioacetazone, solyutizon are back, or drugs II series. They usually appoint, in cases where found insensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drugs 1 series.
Drug is usually prescribed long-term (1-2 years and more). This is because anti-tuberculosis drugs have only a bacteriostatic effect on the cause of tuberculosis, and therefore a long treatment is necessary to prevent a recurrence of the disease.
To anti-TB drugs relatively quickly developed resistance of mycobacteria, so a combination of anti-tuberculosis drugs is the basis of treatment of tuberculosis. Usually combine different drugs 1 series. If TB bacteria have become resistant to particular anti-media 1 series, the last substitute drugs II series. Patients with chronic forms of tuberculosis, long-treated, appointed only drugs II series, which also combine with each other.
The use of anti-TB drugs are usually combined with therapeutic measures aiming to increase the body's defenses: favorable General regime, sanatorium treatment, etc.,
TB funds are used in various localization and various forms of tuberculosis. When pulmonary tuberculosis drug more effective in recent cases (when ekssoudativeh and inflammatory forms), and with exacerbations of fibro-cavernous TB. Favorable results of the use of these funds in miliary TB and TB meningitis that before the creation of anti-tuberculosis drugs was considered certainly fatal diseases. Highly effective anti-tuberculosis drugs in tuberculous lesion of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and intestines, bones, joints, and the urinary tract, of the skin. Note that the more pronounced therapeutic effect of anti-TB drugs are observed when tuberculous process is localized is not in the parenchyma organs, and in the mucous membranes.
Prolonged use of drugs can lead to toxic and allergic reactions, such as violation of the vestibular apparatus, hearing under the influence of streptomycin, neuritis, rash on the skin when taking tubazide, and others In connection with this the question about the side effects of each drug is particularly important.
Single-drug - see the article by name drugs.

Drug - chemotherapy drugs used to treat tuberculosis, for training of TB patients for surgical operations and for the prevention of tuberculosis in children who are in contact with patients with open forms of tuberculosis. Anti-TB drugs are usually used in combination with other treatment methods, shown in these cases.
Chemical characteristics of P.F. can be divided into the following groups: 1) the isonicotinic acid hydrazide and its derivatives - isoniazid (see), ftivazide (see), salyuzid (see), salyuzid soluble, metazid (see), laruan (see), INGA-17 (para-acetamidobenzoic-isonicotinamide); 2) antibiotics streptomycin (see), dihydrostreptomycin, viomycin (see), kanamycin (see), cycloserine (see); 3) paraaminosalicilovaya acid and its derivatives - PAS (see Paraaminosalicylic sodium), bemasc (see); 4) aromatic thiosemicarbazones - tibon, solyutizon; 5) derivatives of thiourea - ataxic (see); 6) derivative thioamide isonicotinic acid, ethionamide; 7) aromatic sulfones - sulfonic (see); 8) derivative various organic carbolic acid - pyrazinamide (see).
The degree of therapeutic efficacy of P.F. divided into two rows. The drugs I stimulants include isonicotinic acid hydrazide and its derivatives, streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin, the drugs group PAS. All other P.F. belong to the II series, i.e., to "reserve" the drugs used in the treatment of patients with chronic TB forms, which previously used the main drugs (I) ceased to give effect in connection with the development of resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drugs II series is also used in intolerance essential anti-TB drugs.
Antibiotics are used to treat tuberculosis have, as a rule, a wide range of activity, and can be used to treat other infections, while synthetic P.F. selectively act only on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment of P.F. TB patients leads to detoxification of the body, the reverse development of pathological changes of the affected organs and disappearance of mycobacteria from sputum. Fresh cavity of decay under the influence of long-term treatment of P.F. closed, and the old large caverns sanitize - their walls become thin, from content disappear TB bacilli. Lung area with such cavities can be surgically removed.
Treatment of TB treatments must be long (10-12 months. and more), to prevent recurrence. Prolonged use of chemotherapy drugs leads to the appearance of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis bacilli. The result P. E., who previously good therapeutic effect is no longer valid. The emergence of multidrug-resistance can be prevented by the simultaneous use of two or more P.F. different Henichesk nature. Rational should be considered a long combined treatment with multiple drugs belonging to different chemical groups. Treatment usually start with the combined use of drugs I stimulants. In case of resistance of mycobacteria to one of them it is replaced by the preparation of a number of II.

Ways of application of anti-TB drugs are different: drugs prescribed oral, intramuscular, intravenous, spinal canal, rectal, vnutriplevralno, intraperitoneally, vnutrikavernozno, by direction of the lymph nodes, bone inside source, inhalations etc.,
The mechanism of action of different anti-TB drugs are not the same. The drugs group hydrazide of isonicotinic acid inhibit the activity of various enzymes mycobacteria - triptofana, glutamine-asparagine-transaminases and other Streptomycin violates the synthesis of elements bacterial membranes and protein synthesis. Cycloserine affects the processes of nitrogen metabolism by inhibiting piridoksalfosfata enzymes.
In some cases when treatment P.F. have side effects. The drugs group hydrazide of isonicotinic acid can disrupt the functions of the Central and peripheral nervous system (dizziness, headache, irritability, euphoria, insomnia, polyneuritis, convulsions, fainting, and others), digestive disorders (nausea, vomiting, poor appetite) and cause skin allergic reactions. After the drug or reducing the dose of these effects usually subside quickly. To avoid complications it is recommended together with drugs of this group to assign vitamins B6 and Bj and glutamic acid. The purpose of the hydrazide of isonicotinic acid and its derivatives is contraindicated in epilepsy, mental illness, the propensity to cramps, when previously transferred polio, functional failure of the liver and kidneys, expressed atherosclerosis.
Side effects of streptomycin may be manifested in a toxic effect on the eighth pair of cranial nerves (deafness, vestibular disorders), in the manifestation of skin allergic reactions, headaches, dizziness, heart, a violation of kidney function. The toxic effect of the drug is eliminated appointment Pantothenic and glutamic acids, vitamin B1, Dimedrol and calcium chloride. Kanamycin with long-term use causes a decrease in hearing up to a full hearing. When treating Fiumicino there may be allergic reactions, eosinophilia, a violation of kidney function. The simultaneous appointment of calcium Pantothenate reduces the toxic effect of the drug. Cycloserine has a stimulating effect on the Central nervous system - overdose may experience anxiety, fear, epileptiform seizures, loss of consciousness, the state of manic psychosis. These phenomena can be prevented or reduced by assigning glutamic acid and vitamin B6. Cycloserine is contraindicated in organic diseases of the nervous system, epilepsy and mental disorders.
In long-term care PAS may be skin allergic reactions, disorders of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys, lakopenia, anaemia. In these cases, should reduce the dose or temporarily discontinue treatment. Ethionamide, typically well tolerated by patients: causes loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weight loss. To eliminate these phenomena appoint nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, methionine and symptomatic funds. Pyrazinamide has expressed toxicity. It is especially serious complications during treatment with this drug include liver damage, and hemoptysis. To reduce the toxic effect of pyrazinamide on the liver appoint methionine and glucose. The drug is contraindicated in the human liver.