Antidote

Antidotes (ComSP) - the tools used for the treatment of poisonings with the purpose of neutralization of poison and removing called pathological disorders. The application of remedies in the treatment of poisoning does not exclude a number of General measures aimed at combating intoxication and held in accordance with the General principles of treatment of poisoning (cessation of contact with poison, delete it, the use of means of resuscitation and others).
One antidote used to absorption of the poison, others after its resorption. The former include antidote linking or neutralizing the poison in the stomach, skin, and mucous membranes, the second matter, neutralizing the poison in the blood and biochemical systems of the body, and also protects against the toxic effects due to physiological antagonism (table. 1).
Below (tab. 2) the most important antidotes and ways of their application in case of poisoning (vnutriserdechne links are not highlighted). Dosage the most common remedies provided in the list of drugs used for acute poisoning (table. 3).
Neutralization nevsosavchegosa poison can be done by adsorption or chemical interaction with the subsequent removal from the body. The most effective joint use of appropriate remedies, in particular the use of the reception inside of a mixture of activated carbon, tannin and magnesium oxide (TM). The application of the remedies of this kind is expedient to combine with all activities are aimed at removal nevsosavchegosa poison (excessive drinking, washing stomach, gag). When the atom is desirable for washing stomach to use chemical antidotes.
Antidote resorptive action are designed to neutralize that absorb the poison. Neutralization of poison in the blood can be achieved by the use of chemical antidotes. So, unitiol (see) neutralizes arsenic and other thiol poisons. Calcium-disodium salt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (see Complexons) is a non-toxic compounds with ions and heavy alkali-earth metals. Methylene blue (see) in large doses turns hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which connects hydrocyanic acid. The use of chemical antidotes effective only in the initial period of intoxication when the poison had no time to interact with biochemically important systems of the body. In this regard, their application has some limitations. In addition, the number of chemical antidotes is relatively small.
For these reasons, the most widespread are the antidote that act is not itself toxic agent, and the resulting toxic effect. In the basis of antidote effect of such substances are competitive relations between the antidote and students in action on biochemical systems of the body, resulting in an antidote displaces the poison of these systems and thereby restores their normal activity. So, some oximes (pyridinoline-methodic and others), reactivity blocked organophosphate poisons holinesterzu restore the normal process of transmission of impulses in the nervous system. The effect of such remedies is strictly selective, and therefore very effectively. However, competition between poison and antidote in action on biochemical systems of the body characterize only one of possible variants of the mechanism of action of anti-venoms. More often it is about the functional antagonism between poison and antidote. In this case, the antidote effect on the body in the opposite compared to poison direction or indirectly prevents toxic effect, affecting the system, not directly affected by the poison. In this sense, the remedies include the many symptoms.
Cm. the Antidotes S, Poisoning, Toxic substances, Food poisoning, Poisonous animals, Poisonous plants, Pesticides, agricultural, industrial Poisons.

Table 1. Classification remedies
A group of anti-venoms Types of anti-venoms The representatives are The mechanism of action of anti-venoms
Neutralizing the poison to suction Adsorbents Activated carbon burnt magnesia The binding of poison as a result of physical-chemical process
Chemical antidotes Tannin, potassium permanganate, weak solutions of acids, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride; unitiol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other Disposal by direct chemical interaction with poison
Neutralizing the poison after absorption Chemical antidotes Unitiol, EDTA, methylene blue, sodium thiosulfate, the antidote metals (stable hydrogen sulphide water) The clearance of a direct result of the interaction of poison in the blood or with the participation of the enzyme systems of the body

Antidote physiological effect

a) competitive antagonists
Physostigmine in the poisoning of curare; atropine poisoning muscaria; chlorpromazine in the administration of epinephrine; antihistamines; reaktivatory cholinesterase poisoning organophosphorus anticholinesterase poisons; nalorfin (endorphin) in the administration of morphine; antiserotoninovoe drugs and other The elimination of toxic effect due to competitive relations between the poison and the antidote to the reaction of the same biochemical system, resulting in a "squeeze out" the poison out of this system and its reactivation
b) functional antagonists Drugs when strychnine poisoning and other CNS stimulants; analeptiki poisoning barbiturates and other The elimination of toxic effects of oppositely directed action on the same organs and systems
in) antidote symptomatic action Cardiovascular drugs, stimulants of the Central nervous system, inflammatory drugs, drugs that affect tissue metabolism, and others appointed by indications The weakening of the individual (both primary and remote) symptoms of poisoning by means of different mechanisms of action, but not directly come into antagonistic relationship with poison
g) antidote, promotes the removal of poison and products of its transformation from an organism Laxatives, emetics, diuretics and other means Accelerate elimination of the poison from the body by strengthening the evacuation functions