Psychasthenia (from the Greek. psyche - soul and astheneia - weakness) is related to psychopathy painful condition in which the most typical feature of mental storage card is anxiety and doubtful character.
Etiology psychasthenia - General with the etiology of all groups of psychopathy. Burdened heredity in the Genesis of psychasthenia, apparently, plays a much greater role than in the origin of other forms of psychopathy. More often psychasthenia common in men.
According to Jean (P. Janet, 1903), the inner life of suffering from psychasthenia characterized by reduction in special psychological stress (tension psychologique), the completeness of which defines the normal mental activity. B a result of lowering the highest processes in the "hierarchy" of psychological phenomena are replaced with lower associated with these latest obsessions and fears. Is "loss of function in the real world", and therefore the mental processes receive subjective attribute failure, of incompleteness. Hence the constant fluctuations and doubt, endless and fruitless digging in same questions, a kind of "mental chewing gum". "The loss of functions of a real" determines the occurrence of States depersonalization and derealization. Lower psychological tension" depends on infringements of blood circulation and nutrition of the brain.
Biopsychological concept Jean, despite its mechanism is known of interest as one of the first attempts to explain psychasthenia, based on the characteristics of personality. The most vivid and accurate description psihologicheskogo character belongs to P. B. Gannushkina (1907). Persons suffering from psychasthenia, weak, timid and impressionable. They are constantly in anticipation of any trouble, and from here originates the doubts in the correctness of his own actions. They are conceited and hypochondria, in society - off, shy, shy. They are unsuited to life. This is not business people, but rather dreamers and visionaries. In the result of abnormal development of such anomalous card there are different obsessions.
I. P. Pavlov include persons suffering from psychasthenia, to the representatives of the weak General type of higher nervous activity in connection with the thought: the weakness of the first signal system and subcortical activity combined with the prevalence of the second signal system. This predominance, preventing full emotional perception of the surrounding makes the thinking of the patient detached from reality. In the neurological field suffering psychasthenia presents vegetative disturbances, sometimes there are ticks and stuttering.
Some signs of psychasthenia can be found in childhood. Pathological development of identifying obsessive-compulsive disorder most often occurs between the ages of 20 and 30 years. During psychasthenia, typically observed fluctuations. In old age is often observed disappearance of many compulsive actions, however, obsessive doubts may increase.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with the disease in the clinical picture of which are the obsessions (see), and especially with slow current schizophrenia in her neurosis-like form, manic-depressive psychosis in the depressive phase and anxiety and obsessions. In schizophrenia is possible to identify typical for this disease is common personality changes, albeit soft expressed. In manic-depressive psychosis has a characteristic frequency of occurrence obsessions. When neurosis, obsessions manifestations psihologicheskogo character are missing.
Children and adolescents with psihologicheskimi character traits should be involved in the life of the team and seek out self skills. When expressed psychasthenia recommended a combination of psychotherapy, occupational therapy and medication. Good results of collective psychotherapy. Useful long-term treatment with chlorpromazine and actually tranquilizing agents (meprobamate, Librium). In severe cases shown insulin therapy.
The prognosis for psychasthenia determined by its belonging to the group of psychopathy (see).