Mentally ill

Mentally ill (synonym insane persons, who due to disorders of the brain activity violated the right perception and awareness surrounding phenomena and changes their behavior. Mental illness entail the partial or complete loss of fitness of the patient to the environmental conditions.
For the prevention and treatment of the mentally ill in the Soviet Union established a special system of psychiatric care. It consists of two main institutions outpatient mental health institutions (dispensaries) and psychiatric hospitals. In addition to these main links in the system of psychiatric care are: outpatient Department and hospital for neuro-mentally ill children, neuro-psychiatric sanatorium, psychiatric clinics, psychiatric Department at somatic hospitals, psychopannychia, nursing home psychiatric profile.
The first link of the system of psychiatric care are psychiatric dispensaries (see Dispensaries, psychoneurological). They allow you to bring psychiatric assistance to the population. With the introduction of psychiatric practice of treatment with psychotropic drugs (see) a growing number of mentally ill gets a chance to receive treatment in outpatient clinics, i.e. in their home. In rural areas clinical supervision for mentally ill by doctors rural medical stations. Methodological guidance and counselling duty regional psychoneurological dispensaries. The next link psychiatric care are psychiatric hospital. Clinics and hospitals are working in close contact. The majority of the mentally ill is sent to a psychiatric hospital after dispensaries.
The main reasons for persisting mentally ill are: 1) the need of such treatment, which can only be performed in a hospital; 2) the need to establish the diagnosis, systematic observation of the patient or holding such examination methods that are difficult or impossible outside of a hospital,- electroencephalography, spinal tap , and so on; 3) the painful symptoms that make the patient is dangerous to himself or others,the desire to commit suicide or aggressive actions; 4) the helplessness of the patient if it is impossible to provide care for him at home; 5) some special readings - forensic psychiatric, employment or military expertise.
The mentally ill are very different from patients somatic hospitals. Mentally sick ones are held in psychiatric hospitals, as a rule, long time - from two to three months to a year or more. In his state of some mentally ill mostly need bed rest, for other desired mode of employment (see occupational therapy, occupational therapy mentally ill). Many mentally ill people commit acts that are dangerous to themselves or to others, or simply wrong behave cry, too mobile, refuse food, hygiene, sometimes sit for hours in the same position, and so on, a Significant number of mentally ill due to the nature of their disease, which lost a critical attitude to their own state persistently refuses appointed treatment, making it either openly or resorting to various tricks. Non-physical medicine are and methods of examination of the mentally ill. Despite the emergence of various methods of objective examination, specially characteristic of psychiatry, the main method of the survey to date is a conversation with a patient. The ability to talk with the mentally ill allows to receive the necessary information concerning both the history of disease, and of this state, which are necessary not only for the proper care of the sick and of his treatment, but also to determine the prognosis of the disease.
A conversation with the patient need to be alone. The physician should keep yourself simply and naturally. Familiarity, in particular the treatment of "you", mush or, in contrast, sharpness is invalid. The doctor is obliged to be able patiently and often for a long time to listen to the patient. To start questioning the mentally ill should be different. So, with patients with various delusional States conversation is better to start with conversations on neutral themes, and patients with depression willingly begin to answer questions and tell if they are directly asked about their concerns or worries. The interrogation of the mentally ill should always be maintained so that patients felt that the doctor is interested in their story that conversation with them leaves no doctor indifferent and that the mentally ill, the doctor sees first of all suffering people, and not just "crazy" or simulators.
In contrast somatic medicine, where subjective history is paramount in psychiatry always, furthermore, the history of objective information about the disease, received from relatives, friends, neighbors and co-workers of the patient. Finally, the examination of the mentally ill is of great importance supervision over them during their hospital stay, and the leading role in this belongs to the middle and Junior medical staff. Without such mandatory surveillance through the auxiliary personnel in the proper study of mentally ill absolutely impossible and always will be incomplete.
The mentally ill, as all patients generally require physical care, but much more careful and have some peculiarities. This is because, unlike other patients, mentally ill very often themselves don't care, but often, due to the nature of mental illness, there are just untidy. So many mentally ill need constant hygienic care - daily washing, toilet mouth and combing, regular trimming of nails, processing of those parts of the body that are easily formed oprelosti, regular inspections bedridden patients to prevent them bedsores. It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the bed, re-making it every morning and evening. If the patient untidy, it is necessary each time to wash, wipe dry and change underwear, and if he's lying, and bed linen.
It is important to monitor physical shipments in psychiatric patients, as they often persistent constipation, incontinence or urinary retention. Weak and stuporous (obedinennye) patients need compulsory or artificial feeding.
Very important to monitor the mentally ill due to frequent among them attempts shoots self harm or suicide.
In connection with the distribution of treatment with psychotropic drugs the importance of permanent monitoring of the physical condition of the mentally ill in the process of treatment and the monitoring of compliance with the treatment regime and in hospital and outpatient settings.

Mentally ill (insane). The mentally ill in connection with the expressed to varying degrees by a disorder of the brain is impaired ability to correctly reflect and cognition of the external world, change the feeling and consciousness of the individual.
Adopted by the world health organization (who, 1955) international nomenclature and classification of mental diseases (7th revision), functioning in the USSR, has some significant drawbacks. However, a single international classification of mental illness creates preconditions for holding large scale psychiatric research.

The spread of mental diseases. Psychiatrists constantly showed great interest in studying the spread of mental diseases. Especially important these studies have purchased in the last time. However, reported by various authors information about the spread of mental diseases among the population are characterized by great heterogeneity. Fluctuations in statistical data depend on a number of reasons: a clear, universally accepted criteria, who can be considered mentally ill, no; some the full identification among the population of the mentally ill is difficult, especially in those countries (most of them)where there is no uniform system of the organization of psychiatric care. Reports of morbidity in this regard are based only on the results of individual surveys covering some regions and cities.