Psycho-physiological aspects of intoxication

Under the influence of alcohol is changing dramatically and disrupted information processing in the Central nervous system.
Medium and high doses of alcohol violate the conditioned-reflex activity, prevent the development of a stereotype. Ultimately alcohol affects all structures of the brain 1. Installed more pronounced dampening effect of alcohol on the right hemisphere and the front area of a bark of the big hemispheres (Kostandov, 1976).
Low doses stimulate and large inhibit alpha rhythm (rhythm of waking) in the EEG. EEG studies have shown that acute alcohol intoxication is accompanied by reliable deceleration of conducting activity both early and late components evoked potentials (EP), i.e., slowing the transmission of nerve impulses (Kirpichenko and others, 1981).
The braking effect of alcohol is most evident at the cortical level (reduced amplitude early specific components of the EAP, especially in the flat areas of the cortex). Later in the result of violations of top-down regulatory corticofugal influences noted dysfunction of subcortical structures.
For the psycho-physiological assessment of intoxication is important phase of intoxication in which the survey was conducted.
In the second phase alcohol inhibits the Central nervous system. In this period reduced time tracking and decreases the probability of detection of the signal, change the heart rate in response to sound stimuli, increases the probability of wrong reactions are most pronounced mental disorders and memory (Frishman, 1986).
Alcohol inhibits the so-called SOMEONE a dream (or paradoxical phase of sleep), closely associated with dreamy activity, and worsens the quality of the slow-wave sleep. So sleep after alcohol intoxication does not bring welcome relief (Jules et al 1967).
Under the influence of alcohol changes the functioning of the entire Central nervous system and its individual elements. Marked changes in metabolism and the functioning of individual neurons. Changing electrogenes neuron. Distorted form of nerve impulses, violated the conditions of his generation.
It is known that the normal functioning of the Central nervous system is provided conjugate number of neurotransmitter systems, transfer of information signals. Transfer of neurotransmitters is the synapses between different neurons. Alcohol interferes with practically in all components mejsinapticescoy interaction.
Of particular importance is the effect of alcohol on the catecholamine neurotransmitters nature: norepinephrine, and dopamine. Research I. Ii. Anohina and B. M. Kogan (1975) have allowed to establish, that the admission of alcohol causes activation of the release and destruction of catecholamines. In turn, it is the basis of occurrence of the General excitement in a state of intoxication. Moreover, increased release of catecholamines observed in those areas of the brain that carry out regulation of emotional States and provide motivational processes. But then, due to quite rapid destruction of catecholamines comes deficiency in the body is the basis of subsequent depressionorder, the braking action of alcohol on the man. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system of the body reacts to alcohol lower levels of serotoninand acetylcholine neurotransmitter system - mainly by the decrease of synthesis of acetylcholine. GABAergic neurotransmitter system reacts as the decrease and increase in the content of GABA depending on the state of the CNS.
Note that histaminergic system responds by increasing the content of histamine in the body of the alcoholic.
At introduction of ethanol, according to the experiments on animals, activated so-called endogenous opioid system (including produced in the body morphine-like substances and similar receptors), with participation of which may modulate the specific violations in neurotransmitter (primarily catecholaminergic) systems.
In more detail the role of neurotransmitter systems will be discussed in Chapter devoted to the pathogenesis of alcoholism.

1. Experimental evidence suggests that the first intake of ethanol react hypothalamic structure. Limbic structures - the hippocampus and the amygdala complex - connect later, still later, a new bark (Vorobyov and others, 1984).