Psychotomimetics tools

Psychotomimetics funds (psychedelic hallucinogenic substances, psychodysleptic, psychotomimetic) - a group of substances that cause a person a variety of mental impairment. Among psychotomimetics funds meet synthetic compounds (lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD-25), as well as substances of plant and animal origin (cannabinol and cannabidiol - existing components Indian hemp, alkaloid Mexican cactus mescaline, psilocybin contained in the Mexican mushrooms, Garmin - alkaloid from the roots of the burial, bufotenin - a substance extracted from the secret glands toads, and other). Psychotomimetics properties has an oxidation product of adrenaline adrenogram.
Most psychotomimetics money makes people transient psychosis, accompanied by vivid visual and auditory hallucinations, euphoria, impaired perception, diagrams, body treatments and vegetative disorders (pupil dilation, salivation, sweating, tachycardia, fluctuations in blood pressure, shortness of breath and other). Mental disorder that occurs under the influence psychotomimetics funds are usually reversible. However, in some cases due to the additional impacts (injury, infection, and so on) after taking LSD-25 marked persistent mental disorders.
Therapeutic value psychotomimetics funds have not and are used in experiments to obtain the "models" of psychosis. Re-use of LSD-25 and other psychotomimetics funds can lead to the development of addiction (see).

Hallucinogens (synonym: psychogenic, psychotomimetics, isogenies substances, psychotics, fiction, psychodysleptic) - a group of compounds of various chemical structure that can cause a person to a variety of mental impairment.
Of mental impairment that occurred when poisoning some herbal products (henbane, dope, LPV, Indian hemp, Mexican cactus, mushrooms), known for a long time. Operating beginnings of some of these plants are used as narcotics (hashish). Known synthetic compounds that can also be attributed to hallucinogenic drugs. Most hallucinogenic funds inherent capacity to cause a person to bright visual and auditory hallucinations, impaired perception, frustration schemes body, a number of vegetative disorders. After taking hallucinogenic funds often occurs amnesia.
Classification of modern hallucinogenic funds based on their chemical structure and includes several groups, among which the main are the following: 1) derivatives of phenethylamine (adrenochrome, adrenalin, mescaline); 2) tryptamine derivatives (lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, bufotenin, Garmin); 3) derivative Diasporan (cannabinol and cannabidiol - existing start of the Indian hemp); 4) substances of different composition (Sernin, anticholinesterase poisons and other).
Hallucinogens related to the derivatives of phenethylamine, on chemical structure related to the catecholamine - adrenaline (see), norepinephrine and dopamine, which, according to modern concepts, assign to the role of transmitters in the Central nervous excitation (see Mediators). The products of the metabolic oxidation of adrenaline - adrenochrome and adrenolytic - have hallucinogenic effect, which was the basis for hypotheses about the role of violations of adrenaline in the origin of some mental disorders in humans. Explore ways inactivation of adrenaline in the body led to the idea of the similarity formed metoksiflurana products of metabolism of catecholamines with mescaline - one of the known hallucinatory substances.
Mescaline - 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ethylamine - alkaloid isolated from the Mexican cactus, the fruits of which have long been used by indigenous people of America as intoxicating funds (peyote) during religious ceremonies. In healthy people mescaline in the dose of 0.5-0.6 g cause various psychic disorders: visual hallucinations, illusions, euphoria, original splitting of consciousness, impaired scheme of the body. Masculinely psychosis occurs in waves, continuing usually 10-12 hours. Vegetative symptomatology meschaninova psychosis includes midriaz, strong feeling of hunger, rarely tachycardia, an increase in blood pressure, sweating, salivation. Mental disorders caused by mescaline, stymied by chlorpromazine or rezerpinom. The property mescaline exacerbate mental symptoms in the mentally ill may be of practical value for the diagnosis of certain mental illnesses.
The strongest of hallucinogenic funds - lysergic acid diethylamide (LDK, LSD-25) - in a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight can cause people hallucinations, which are primarily visual in nature. Being derived from lysergic acid, LDK similar in structure to natural alkaloids LPV and causes similar affect the tone of smooth muscles of blood vessels and the uterus. The LDK has sympatholytic, adrenolytic, ganglioblokirtee effect, causing along with this cholinergic effects (drowsiness, vomiting, aetiology). I admit that some of the manifestations of the Central actions of the LDK (as of mescaline) depend on its antagonism to serotonin (see). The Central effect of the LDK (as of mescaline) stopped by chlorpromazine and rezerpinom.
Other substances of this group, are similar in structure to serotonin, one should mention bufotenin (N, N-dimethyl-5-oxitriptan), psilocybin (phosphoric ether N, N-dimethyl-4-oxitriptan) and Garmin (alkaloid roots of the burial derived carboline). Cannabis and cannabidiol contained in the Indian hemp, are active principles of cannabis can cause euphoria with hallucinations, vivid dreams, a violation of the scheme of the body and other mental disorders. Psychotomimetics action have other pharmacological and toxic substances, in particular, the group of cholinesterase inhibitors, as well as natural and synthetic atropinopodobnye connection. Unlike typical hallucinogens (LDK, mescaline), psychotomimetics the effect of these substances is not selective.
The use of hallucinogenic means limited to attempts to use them for activation of the latent mental disorders in low current forms dushevnyh diseases, as well as in the experiment as a "model" of psychosis. Cm. also Psychotropic drugs.