Psychogenic

Psychogenic - a group of mental disorders caused by trauma (heavy experience). Psychogenic divided into neurosis (see) and psychogenic reactive psychosis. Reactive psychosis usually develop with sudden severe mental trauma. They can occur in any person, but more often seen in people with unstable mentality, patients with mental illness, psychopaths and physically impaired persons.
Psychogenic depression is the most common form of reactive psychosis. Determined by the depression with tearfulness, often distinct sadness, anxiety and fear, motor retardation or agitation; in the minds of patients dominated by thoughts that belong to the past misfortune. These same thoughts constantly speak ill when they ask. Normal somatic disorders characteristic of depression in General (see Affective syndromes). Duration psychogenic depression from 1 to 3 months, and in patients older than 40 years up to 4-6 months. and even more. In the initial period are frequent attempts to commit suicide.
Reactive delirium (paranoid) is usually manifested in forms of acute sensual delirium, accompanied by anxiety and motor excitation (see Delusional syndrome). Most often reactive delirium develops in prisons, pre-trial prisoners in solitary confinement. In addition Breda, in these cases often appear auditory hallucinations blaming, threatening, or protecting the content. Psychosis can last from several weeks to several months. Often reactive delirium occurs in the conditions of a long way with many changes and related unrest and sleepless nights - the so-called railway paranoid. The emergence delirium in these conditions promotes the use of alcohol.
Similar delusional state have deaf and blind in unusual conditions - situational paranoid. These psychoses typically last for hours, days, sometimes weeks.
Hysterical reactive psychosis is manifested in several forms. Gasarowski syndrome twilight is defined by the change of consciousness during which patients as if deliberately give the wrong answers to the simplest questions, unable to produce the most basic activities, do not understand the purpose of everyday items. The behavior is determined that inhibition, chaotic excitement. Pseudodementia (false dementia) is characterized by the appearance and silly expression, eyes wide open, often small trembling of the limbs or the whole body. Patients laugh for no reason, but more often the mood is depressed. Along with wrong answers to the simplest questions patients may give correct answers to complex questions. The same applies them to the possibility of various objects. Puerilis - defined expressed childishness in behavior, facial expressions, speech. Patients consider themselves children play in matching games, childish act up and cry.
Psychogenic stupor - immobilized patients, refuse to eat, slovenly; a characteristic sharp vegetative disorders.
These four forms hysterical psychosis often are only stages of the disease. So, gasarowski syndrome can be replaced psychogenic stupor or pseudodementia, stupor - pseudodementia and perilicom, etc. Hysterical psychosis may be short, but often, for example in the expert situations (often judicial), continue for months or even years.
When the diagnosis of psychogenic reactive psychosis should be immediately placed the patient in the hospital. It should be remembered that these patients easily and often suddenly come into a state of motor excitation, followed by self-harm or attempted suicide. Therefore, these patients should be treated very carefully and transport them to produce accompanied by medical personnel.

Psychogenic (from the Greek. psyche - soul and the genesis - origin - of mental disorders caused and due to mental injury, unbearable feelings.
The incidence of Psychotrauma clearly increased during the war, unemployment and so on, Psychogenic less frequently than other forms of psychosis, give reasons for persisting.
Etiology of Psychotrauma is determined by the impact of trauma. Traumatic experiences are divided into acute and chronic; in turn sharp - shock, depressing and disturbing. Crucial for the emergence of psychogenic have on the one hand the nature and strength of the injury, and on the other, instability or inferiority psyche. To mentally vulnerable, "jet-labile, the advantage can be attributed person infantile or detect one or another partial delay of mental development, including the intellectual. The mentality of the mentally deficient and children with their weakness critics, suggestibility and prevalence of affective life are particularly vulnerable to feelings of fear. Physical illness and the resulting asthenia also reduce the resistance of the individual to mental trauma.
Under adverse circumstances and strong enough or long injury everyone can get a more or less pronounced psychogenic. With special force are specific for a given individual traumatic experiences involving vulnerable, sensitive side in the storage card. Unconditional traumatic significance factors, which caused feelings of fright and fear, serious everyday failures, especially in conflict and disease, in particular iatrogenia, unexpected news of the death of loved ones, family break.
Chronic injury, such as a consciousness of his ugliness or humiliating situation, etc., that affects primarily the development of character (asthenia, interesate, psychasthenia). Slow acting, lingering trauma creates a constant oppression, removes all excitement, reduces vegetative tonus for a long time.
Pathogenesis. Mental trauma creates disruption of normal activities of bark, overvoltage in the subcortex (primarily in the ascending reticular formation) and bark with subsequent predominance of braking. Super-strong and repeated irritation on this basis can lead to congestive excitation.


The clinical picture. Clinical manifestations psychogenic usually divided into pathological reaction, neurosis and reactive psychosis (psychogenic in the narrow meaning of this word). Distinguishing these are not absolute. Among these groups of Psychotrauma frequent transitions, the possible combinations.
Pathological response - short-term direct affective discharge, which quantitatively or qualitatively inadequate caused it. Exciting stimulus is often not a traumatic in the truest sense of the word, so if pathological reactions crucial one or another mental instability. The most frequent asthenic, hysterical, Psihologicheskaya, explosive and prenocisca reactions (see Delusional syndrome, excellent condition, Hysteria, Psychasthenia).
Neuroses (see) arise, as a rule, long-term injury psyche, inconsistencies psihobiologicheskoj individual requirements of the environment. The suffering from neurosis retained consciousness of their disease.
Psychogenic reactive psychosis distinguished by the depth of functional disorders, which no neuroses, and the duration are not typical pathological reactions. We can identify the following five groups reactive psychosis, having along with a common origin and common patterns: 1) affective-shock psychosis, 2) psychogenic depression, 3) psychogenic paranoid, 4) hysterical psychosis and 5) induced insanity.
Affective-shock psychosis - a consequence of acute emotional turmoil (sudden fright), particularly during disasters and earthquakes, rarely sudden negative news. These psychoses easier arise in excitable and weak people, accompanied expressed confused. Motor excitation with meaningless flight is sometimes replaced by a stupor, but stupor may occur initially. Rarer full shock psychosis occurs in the form of short-term excitation with automatic actions, then the patient is not stored memories. After fear and sharp mental stress may come a falling tone, partial paralysis in the form of "paralysis of emotions" - long-term (up to one month) apathy, when a threatening situation is already not cause any feelings, except indifferent registration of the surrounding.
Psychogenic depression is the most common type of rocket psychosis - a natural consequence, such as loss of a loved one, most often seen in a mother who lost her child. Symptoms psychogenic depression often is only in the power and duration of the oppressed condition. Depression is associated with a range of specific views, which became dominant. After the acute period with weeping and agitation patients sluggish, experiencing fatigue, lack of energy and any interest, difficulty in thinking, confusion; they have a bad dream and appetite, fatigue, a lot of discomfort, headache. Patients tend to thoughts of suicide, especially in the first period, when the sadness and confusion significant. Psychogenic depression in the acute condition usually lasts for 2-4 months. Kind psychogenic depression is nostalgia - longing for the homeland.
Psychogenic paranoid, unlike psychogenic depression occurs more frequently in men. Psychogenic paranoid have a larger sindonologists diversity. A classic example of acute psychogenic paranoid is the so-called railway paranoid. Fear and delusions of persecution quickly develop passenger, usually loners, after insomnia, in the conditions of a long way and offers direct in unfamiliar terrain. Psychosis lasts only a few days, proceeds with the confusion, reaching easy confusion, with the expressed fear and fragmentary ludicrous interpretations. Following by rail - emptive, but not the only situation in which develops this type psychogenic (reactive) paranoid. As a synonym train sometimes used the term "situation paranoid". Similar paranoid have deaf and the blind, who already at small material difficulties you may experience fear and interpretative delusions of persecution, thus contributing also illusory perception, particularly associated with tinnitus.
More often reactive paranoid occurs in prisons in untried prisoners. It is longer and, as a rule, is accompanied auditory hallucinations. Solitary confinement causes special anxiety tension and can cause acute hallucinosis: the patient hears from behind the wall voices of different people, hostile to him, zastupilsya for him. Experience, sometimes objectively small, in a certain situation mobilizes readiness to respond supervaluable ideas, i.e. causes affective underlined the dominance of the limited number of views over the whole of mental life. Sick people stanichny, purposeful, always confident that they are right, but with naive thinking, affective viscous. Are resistant barratry, pathological invention, appear hypochondriac ideas and ideas of jealousy, often unfounded domagalska claims arising from any physical injuries, especially with a disability. When starting atherosclerosis in such individuals may experience deceptions memory when supervaluable idea easily becomes delirious, is not consistent with any real circumstances. Starychenko the psychosis (delusions of querulant) is the most typical kind of similar Psychotrauma. For his education necessary conflict, sometimes insignificant situation that creates a delusional idea of applying the resentment caused by the injustice, Podrobnosti judges, etc.
Hysterical psychosis arise in conflict situations as a way out of it. The consciousness of the patient changed as narrowing and immersion in a fantastic experience, but then remains amnesia for the period of psychosis. Psychological essence of the clinical picture are autosuggestion and "hysterical theater>, experiencing nightmares awake - the transfer to another environment (desirable or once-traumatic). There is also a reincarnation in a child or another person. Sometimes for a short time as would have taken the shape of an animal; the patient is trying to reproduce the behavior of the animal.
Sometimes, especially in a prison environment with prisoners on remand, hysterical twilight state reincarnation is manifested in the form lasts for months syndromes Ganzer and puerility.
For the first characteristic of a deliberately wrong answers to the questions. For the second child playful behavior. In less severe this protective psychosis ("the flight into illness") appears as pseudodementia when a patient with a silly expression, Tarashcha eyes, depicts dementia and unconsciousness with a deliberately incorrect behavior (for example, cannot count the fingers, put on a shirt).
Induced insanity and mental epidemic occupy a special place among the Psychotrauma. Nonsense, as usual mistakes of judgment, under certain conditions, can be transmitted to others. Induced usually close relatives who have close contact with patients and emotional addicted. Psychos, usually manifested by delusions of persecution or religious delusions (the latter was to meet relatively rare). Conditions for the occurrence of mental induction activity are inductor, affective saturation delusional ideas and passivity, lack of criticality induced.
Mental epidemic is hysterical mass psychosis, which are "infected", imitation and suggestion. The most characteristic hysterical convulsive epidemic. With the spread of education and culture in the broad layers of the population mental
the epidemic is increasingly becoming a part of history.
Treatment. If possible, eliminate traumatizing psychics moments. Patients with psychotic symptoms usually subject to persist, as they often dangerous to themselves or others. She is a change of environment favourable effect: soon you receive partial understanding of the pain of his behavior that facilitates psychotherapeutic influence.
Prevention consists first of all in the social transformation of society, resulting in elimination of class oppression and psychology of individualism. Of great importance to the improvement of family relations, elimination of the subordinate position of women.